Introducing Cork's Historic Newspapers
The Skibbereen Eagle
The Skibbereen Eagle was the older of the two West Cork papers, having been founded in May 1857 by the Potter family. Originally it was a four-sheet paper containing mainly advertisements and snippets of local news, but would become renowned for its sharp acerbic witticisms throughout its lifespan. The paper’s opinions were even more numerable than its name changes, which included: The Skibbereen and West Carbery Eagle: Or South Western Advertiser, and The Cork County Eagle and Munster Advertiser. Any reference to the journalistic merit of the Eagle, however, would be incomplete without reference to its notorious comments concerning keeping a ‘Watchful Eye on the Czar of Russia’.[i] Characterised by its outspoken nature towards the end of the 19th century, the Skibbereen Eagle’s solemn warnings to the Czar are certainly not representative of delusions of grandeur on the part of the West Cork weekly. Rather, they highlight the sensationalist style of the paper, which would be continued throughout the revolutionary period, with the paper customarily raining down stinging swipes from its editorial ‘Watchtower,’ regardless of its oft-changing political affiliations. The ‘watchful eye’ of the Eagle has been immortalised by the J.J O’Molloy character in James Joyce’s Ulysses, as well as being famously referred to by legendary sports broadcaster Bill O’Herlihy in his final television appearance.[ii]
The Southern Star
Launched in opposition to the Eagle, the Southern Star was founded by John and Florence O’Sullivan in 1889, with the paper becoming noted for its support of the Catholic Church following its sale by the O’Sullivan brothers to a consortium fronted by Monsignor O’Leary in 1891.[iii] Advertised as “the recognised Nationalist organ of South and West Cork” since its sale to the Monsignor, this consortium’s mismanagement is vehemently criticised in the memoirs of former Minister for Finance and one-time editor of the paper, Ernest Blythe.[iv]
The Cork Constitution
In the City, the Cork Constitution was not content to merely be an avid supporter of the British Empire. “The good old Tory organ” as Liam De Róiste called it, embodied the British Empire to such an extent that its windows were smashed and its offices stoned during the Rising. [v] Founded in 1825, the printing works and newspaper offices of the Cork Constitution were located in 42 Marlboro Street. The newspaper was taken over in 1885 by Henry Lawrence Tivy, “a member of a respected and affluent Cork family.” Tivy purchased the paper having made a small fortune as a highly successful butter merchant.[vi]
The Cork Examiner
The Constitution’s immediate counter-part, and sparring partner for close to a century, was the Cork Examiner. The paper was founded by John Francis Maguire, a close friend of the Apostle of Temperance, Father Matthew, before being taken over by the Crosbie family.[vii] At the time of the Rising, the paper remained a committed, but unofficial, Redmondite journal and was edited by George Crosbie.
The Cork Free Press
By way of contrast, the Cork Free Press served as the organ of the All-for-Ireland League since it’s foundation in 1909. In the oft-repeated tale, William O’Brien and his supporters were prevented from approaching the platform at the United Irish League’s ill-tempered, to put it mildly, ‘Baton Convention’ of 1909, being informed that no one with a Cork accent would be allowed to speak. In response, O’Brien formed his own constitutional Home Rule party, the All-for-Ireland League, and launched the party’s campaign newspaper, The Cork Accent, which was later replaced by the Cork Free Press.[viii] The paper was ostensibly founded by O’Brien, but primarily funded by his wife Sophie Raffalovich and other supporters like Lord Dunraven. As issues such as public commemoration, inclusivity and television dramas are hotly debated today , it is only fitting to reflect upon how the Rising was framed in the media by the dynamic personalities that reflected, and indeed refracted, contemporary events for the popular newspapers of the day in Cork City and County.
[i] The Skibbereen Eagle, 2 September 1899, p.1
[ii] J.J. O’Molloy reference Potter, Matthew, “Keeping an Eye on the Tsar of Russia” in Rafter, Kevin, (ed.), Irish journalism before independence: More a disease than a profession, Manchester University Press, Manchester, 2011, p. 49
[iii] The Southern Star Centenary Supplement, p.2; Oram, Hugh, Paper Tigers: Stories of Irish Newspapers by the People Who Make Them, Appletree Press, Belfast, 1993, p.56
[iv] The Southern Star Centenary Supplement, pp.2-35
[v] U271/A/17, 12.01.1915-06.07.1915, pp. 119-120, De Róiste Diaries, Cork County and City Archives, Bureau of Military History Witness Statement, Liam De Róiste, p.323
[vi] Van Esbeck, 100 Years of Cork Constitution Football Club, p.16; CCCA, Tivy Family Papers, U116/A/53, p.i. Tivy attributed his success to “a close acquaintance with the state of the markets across the channel.”
[vii] McGuire, John Francis, M.P., Home Government for Ireland: Being a Series of Articles reprinted from the ‘Cork Examiner’, John Falconer Printer, Dublin, 1872, pp.42-3. McGuire states that revolution can only lead to “anarchy and confusion”.
[viii] O’Donovan, John, “Nationalist political conflict in Cork, 1910,” Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society, Vol. 117, 2012 p. 42