Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP)

BAP is a tetrameric glycoprotein found on the surface of osteoblast cells.  The function of BAP is not clearly understood but it has been shown to be a biochemical indicator of bone formation. 

Cross-linked N-telopeptide of type 1 collagen (Ntx)

Ntx is a specific indicator of bone resorption.  It is generated from bone by osteoclasts as a degradation product of type I collagen, and it can easily be measured in urine or serum. 


Proteins which regulate immunity and inflammation.

Delayed Ossification

This is a delay in the formation of bone. The process of ossification begins towards the end of the second month of embryonic life.


Damage to the myelin sheet of the brain and spinal cord.


Abnormally high calcium concentrations in the blood.


Abnormally low calcium concentrations in the blood.


A type of white blood cell that ingests foreign material

e.g. micro-organism's of infection.


Insulation of nerve cells. 


Osteocalcin is a noncollagenous protein found in bone and dentin.  It is manufactured by osteoblasts.  It is used as a biochemical marker for bone formation. 

Secondary hyperparathyroidism

This is when the body produces excessive parathyroid hormone because calcium levels are too low.  Correcting the calcium levels and the underlying problem will bring the concentrations of parathyroid hormone back to normal.


The lining of the joints. 

T Lymphocytes

A lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell.  A T lymphocyte is a small lymphocyte produced in the thymus which starts the fight against infection. 

Th1-type response

The good mechanism of immune response.

Undercarboxylated osteocalcin

Inactive form of osteocalcin.  It can be used as a functional marker of vitamin K status. 

Vitamin D binding protein

Vitamin D binding protein is a carrier protein which is made in the liver. It's function is to carry vitamin D and its metabolites through the blood and to mediate the response of tissues.



Cork Centre for Vitamin D and Nutrition Research

University College Cork , Western Road, Cork