The Department of Radiology has interests in research relating to all aspects of Radiology. Our areas of specialist interest relate to radiation dose optimisation in computed tomography (CT) and medical education.
President’s Strategic Awards, University College, Cork 2006
(€5000) - Combined with support (€12,000) from UCC to purchase a Film Digitiser for academic purposes.
President’s Strategic Awards, University College, Cork 2007
(€5000) - Combined with €12,000 donation from Agfa Corp for purchase of laptop computers to facilitate completion of final medical examinations using digital techniques.
European Re-integration fund Program: Marie Curie Research Training Network FP6-2005-Mobility-12
Radiation dose associated with Computer Tomography in patients with Crohn's Disease (Co-ordinator Name: Prof Michael Maher): Awarded €90,000 in December 2006
Health Research Board Summer Student Grant 2006:
Supervised Ms. Carmel Ni Churrain who was successful in her application and completed a project on Trends in Imaging of patients with Crohn’s Disease over a 12-year period.
Health Research Board Summer Student Grant 2007:
Supervised Mr. Sebastian McWilliams who was successful in his application and completed a project on Trends in Imaging of patients with ulcerative colitis over a 12-year period.
Health Research Board 2009:
Funded purchase of CT scanner time in CUH and through cooperation with GE integration of ASiR dose reduction equipment.
SFI Research center funding 2014:
In collaboration with the APC Microbiome Institute and General Electric Healthcare, this funded MBIR dose reduction equipment, research radiographer time, advanced technical support
UCC Professor Denis O'Sullivan Clinical Research Fellowship 2015:
Awarded to Dr. Siobhán O'Neill towards completion of her PhD entitled 'Novel Methods of Radiation Dose Reduction at Computed Tomography in Patients with Crohn's Disease'.
UCC Strategic research award 2015:
Purchase of state of art CT phantom.
APC student scholarship in 2015:
Supervised M. Barbara Ann Duffy who was successful in her application and completed a project on CT dose monitoring software in CUH
MRI research time 2015:
3T MRI scanner commissioned in Q3 2015 at CUH with dedicated research time
We are fortunate to have several excellent collaborators with whom we work, including clinicians, researchers and industry partners, each of whom add significant value in terms of expertise, experience and research input. Many of our radiology colleagues are involved in research and have published papers in their respective areas of interest. Collaboration with researchers includes:
- Professor Fergus Shanahan - Consultant Gastroenterologist and Director of the Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre (APC), a world leading Centre for gastrointestinal health, who will provides a wealth of expertise and clinical data from inflammatory bowel disease populations
- Professor Barry Plant, Consultant Respiratory physician who will be the key contact with cystic fibrosis patients
- Professor Joseph Eustace who is a renal physician with interest in radiation dose and medical statistics
- Dr. Liam Marnane, Senior Lecturer Department of Engineering, UCC provides unique and invaluable expertise in the area of signal processing and analysis.
University College Cork:
Professor Denis O’Sullivan Research Fellowship, Dr Siobhán O’Neill 2015
University College Cork Biodesign for Health Applications award 2012 presented by the President of UCC and adjudicated by members of Enterprise Ireland (the Irish government organisation responsible for the development and growth of Irish enterprises in world markets) and Stryker.
Teacher of the Year Award (Lecturer Category), Dr Maria Twomey 2015
Teacher of the Year Award (Lecturer Category), Dr Kevin Murphy 2014
Teacher of the Year Award (Lecturer Category), Dr Patrick McLaughlin 2012
Teacher of the Year Award (Lecturer Category), Dr Siobhan O’Neill 2011
Teacher of the Year Award (Lecturer Category), Dr O’Connor 2010
Teacher of the Year Award (Consultant Category), Professor Maher 2006 and 2007
ESGAR Top 20 Presenters prizes:
Dr Kevin Murphy 2011
Dr Owen O’Connor 2010
Dr Patrick McLaughlin 2009
Dr Kevin O’Regan 2008 and 2009
American Roentgen Ray Society (ARRS) certificate of Merit
Dr Owen O’Connor 2012
Society of Uroradiology
Award Best Presentation Scientific Session - Honorary Mention - Society of Uroradiology
RSNA Chicago, USA
Excellence in Design 2007 and 2008
Cum Laude 2007
Certificate of Merit 2005 and 2007
International Society of Gastroenterology
Third prize for best presentation 2006
Faculty of Radiologists Spring Meeting
Best Poster 2006
APC Principal Investigator (2010-present)
Faculty of Radiologists RCSI, Part 2 examiner (2014-present)
Faculty of Radiologists RCSI, Member of Research and Radiation Safety Committees (2015-present)
Chair CUH Radiation Safety Committee (2013-2015)
CUH Charity Board Member (2013-present)
Scientific Editorial Board of European Radiology (2010-present)
Journal Referee for Irish Journal Medical science, European Radiology, Radiology, American Journal of Roentgenology, Clinical Radiology
Dr O’Connor and Professor Maher
The Department of Radiology has produced over 130 peer reviewed paper publications in the past 10 years. Professor Maher has published over 200 peer reviewed papers and 60 have been published by Dr O’Connor. Many of these papers have been published in prestigious journals including Radiology, American Journal of Roentgenology, European Radiology, Chest, Gut, Radiologic and Gastroenterology Clinics of North America, Annals of Surgery, Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, and Radiographics. Approximately 10 book chapters have been written by the Department of Radiology in the past 10 years. Professor Maher is co-editor of Grainger and Allison’s Diagnostic Radiology: Abdominal Imaging 6th edition. Professor Maher’s H index is 44 and Dr O’Connor’s is 14.
Selected Relevant Publications
In: Radiological Clinics of North America.
Murphy KP, Twomey M, McLaughlin PD, O'Connor OJ, Maher MM.
2. “How do we minimise radiation exposure in IBD?”
In: Clinical Dilemmas in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: New Challenges, Editors: Irving D, Shanahan F, Siegel C.
O’Connor OJ, Desmond A, Shanahan F, Maher MM. Blackwell Publishing 2011; ISBN: 1444334549
3. “The genitourinary tract: Overview of anatomy, pathology, techniques and radiation issues”
In: Editors Adam A, Dixon A, Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop C. and F, Siegel C.
O’Connor OJ, Maher MM. London, Elsevier Publishing 2013
4. 'Image guided drainage techniques'
In: Grainger and Allison’s Diagnostic Radiology 6th edition. Editors Adam A, Dixon A, Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop C.
O'Connor OJ, Maher MM. London, Elsevier Publishing 2013.
5. “Chapter 34: Common uroradiological referrals; hematuria, loin pain, renal failure and infection”
In: Grainger and Allison’s Diagnostic Radiology 6th edition. Editors Adam A, Dixon A, Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop C.
O'Connor OJ, Derchi, El-Diasty, and Abou El-Ghar. London, Elsevier Publishing 2013.
6. “Imaging of gallbladder neoplasia”
In: The Handbook of Abdominal Imaging. Editors: Hamm B, Ros P.
O’Connor OJ, McDermott S, Covarrubias DA, Kambadakone A, Blake MA. USA: Springer Publishing 2013.
7. “Imaging of Hematuria”
In: Radiological Clinics of North America.
O'Connor OJ, McSweeney SE,Maher MM. New York: Elsevier Saunders 2008.
8. “Imaging of Hematuria”.
In: MDCT: From Protocols to Practice. Editors: Kalra/Saini/Rubin.
McSweeney S, O'Connor OJ, Maher MM. Italy: Springer Verlag 2008.
9. “CT urography”
In: Multidetector Computed Tomography, From Protocols to Practice. Editors: Kalra M, Saini S, Rubin GD.
McSweeney SE, O’Connor OJ, Maher MM. USA: Springer Publishing 2008.
10. “Interventional Radiology in oncology”
In: Cancer Treatment and Research; Imaging in Oncology.
Editors: Blake M, Kalra M. O’Connor OJ, Buckley JM, Maher MM. USA: Springer publishing 2008.
11. “CT-Guided Percutaneous Needle Biopsy of the Chest: Preprocedural Evaluation and Technique”
Wu CC, Maher MM, Shepard JAO 2011
12. “An update on radioactive release and exposures after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear disaster”
Mclaughlin, PD,Jones, B,Maher, MM 2012
Selected peer reviewed paper publications
- Crowley MP, O'Neill SB, Kevane B, O'Neill DC, Eustace JA, Cahill MR, Bird B, Maher MM, O'Regan K, O'Shea D. Ionizing radiation exposure as a result of diagnostic imaging in patients with lymphoma.Clin Transl Oncol. 2015 Aug 26. PMID: 26307754
- Murphy KP, O'Connell OJ, O'Connor OJ, Plant BJ, Maher MM. Cumulative radiation exposure to abdominal organs in patients with cystic fibrosis should not be forgotten. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014 Oct 15;190(8):961-2. PMID: 25317469
- Ho IK, Cash BD, Cohen H, Hanauer SB, Inkster M, Johnson DA, Maher MM, Rex DK, Saad A, Singh A, Rehani MM, Quigley EM. Radiation exposure in gastroenterology: improving patient and staff protection. Am J Gastroenterol. 2014 Aug;109(8):1180-94. PMID: 24842339
- Breen M, Murphy KP, O'Neill SB, O'Donovan JP, McWilliams S, Desmond AN, Shanahan F, Quigley EM, Maher MM. The utilisation and diagnostic yield of radiological imaging in a specialist functional GI disorder clinic: an 11-year retrospective study. Eur Radiol. 2014 Dec;24(12):3097-104. PMID: 25059676
- O’Connor OJ, Vandeleur M, McGarrigle AM, Moore N, McWilliams S, McSweeney S, O’Neill M, Ni Chroinin M, Maher MM. “Development of low-dose protocols for thin-section CT of cystic fibrosis in pediatric patients” Radiology 2010; 257(3):820-829.
- O’Regan KN, Marsden P, Sayers G, Morrissey M, Hegarty H, Allen M, O’Connor OJ, Malone D, Maher MM. "Videoconferencing of a National program for residents on evidence-based practice: early performance evaluation." Journal of the American College of Radiologists 2010; 7(2): 138-45.
- O’Sullivan J, O’Connor OJ, O’Regan K, Clarke B, Burgoyne LN, Ryan MF, Maher MM. “An assessment of medical students’ awareness of radiation exposures associated with diagnostic imaging investigations”. Insights into Imaging 2010; 1(2):86-92.
- O’Connor OJ, McSweeney SE, McWilliams SR, O’Neill S, Shanahan F, Quigley E, Maher MM. “An evidence based review of the role of imaging in irritable bowel syndrome” Radiology 2011 262(2):485-94.
- Mc Laughlin P, Neill SO, Fanning N, McGarrigle AM, Connor OJ, Wyse G, Maher MM. “Emergency CT brain: preliminary interpretation with a tablet device: image quality and diagnostic performance of the Apple iPad” Emerg Radiol 2011; 19(2):127-33
- McWilliams S, O’Connor OJ, McGarrigle AM, Quigley E, Shanahan F, Maher MM “CT-based estimation of intracavitary gas volumes using threshold-based segmentation: in vitro study to determine the optimal threshold range” Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology2012; 56(3): 289-94
- Craig O, O'Neill S, O'Neill F, McLaughlin P, McGarrigle A, McWilliams S, O'Connor O, Desmond A, Walsh EK, Ryan M, Maher M, Shanahan F. Diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography using lower doses of radiation for patients with Crohn's disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012; 10(8):886-92
- Singh S, Kalra MK, Do S, Thibault JB, Pien H, O'Connor OJ, Blake MA. “Comparison of hybrid and pure iterative reconstruction techniques with conventional filtered back projection: dose reduction potential in the abdomen”. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2012; 36(3): 347-53
- McLaughlin P, O’Connor OJ, O’Neill S, Shanahan, F, Maher MM "Minimization of radiation exposure due to computed tomography in Inflammatory Bowel Disease" ISRN Gastroenterology 2012; 790279.
- Leong S, Mc Laughlin P, O'Connor OJ, O'Flynn S, Maher MM. “An assessment of the feasibility and effectiveness of an e-learning module in delivering a curriculum in radiation protection to undergraduate medical students” J Am Coll Radiol. 2012; 9(3):203-9.
- O’Regan KN, Desmond A, O’Connor OJ, McLaughlin P, McWilliams S, O’Neill S, Shanahan F, Maher MM. “Plain abdominal radiographs in patients with Crohn’s disease: radiologic findings and diagnostic value” Clin Rad. 2012; 67(8):774-81.
- O’Connell O, McWilliams S, McGarrigle AM, O’Connor OJ, Shanahan F, Mullane D, Eustace J, Maher MM, Plant B. “Radiology imaging in cystic fibrosis: cumulative effective dose and changing trends over 2 decades” Chest. 2012; 141(6): 1575-83 PMID: 2220767
- Desmond AN, O'Regan K, Curran C, McWilliams S, Fitzgerald T, Maher MM, Shanahan F. Crohn's disease: factors associated with exposure to high levels of diagnostic radiation. Gut. 2008 Nov;57(11):1524-9. PMID: 18443021
- Campbell J, Kalra MK, Rizzo S, Maher MM, Shepard JA. Scanning beyond anatomic limits of the thorax in chest CT: findings, radiation dose, and automatic tube current modulation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2005 Dec;185(6):1525-30.
- Rizzo SM, Kalra MK, Schmidt B, Raupach R, Maher MM, Blake MA, Saini S. CT images of abdomen and pelvis: effect of nonlinear three-dimensional optimized reconstruction algorithm on image quality and lesion characteristics. Radiology. 2005 Oct;237(1):309-15. PMID:16183939
- Kalra MK, Rizzo S, Maher MM, Halpern EF, Toth TL, Shepard JA, Aquino SL. Chest CT performed with z-axis modulation: scanning protocol and radiation dose.Radiology. 2005 Oct;237(1):303-8. PMID:16183938
- Kalra MK, Maher MM, D'Souza RV, Rizzo S, Halpern EF, Blake MA, Saini S. Detection of urinary tract stones at low-radiation-dose CT with z-axis automatic tube current modulation: phantom and clinical studies. Radiology. 2005 May;235(2):523-9. PMID:15770037
- Kalra MK, Maher MM, Toth TL, Schmidt B, Westerman BL, Morgan HT, Saini S. Techniques and applications of automatic tube current modulation for CT. Radiology. 2004 Dec;233(3):649-57. PMID:15498896
- Kalra MK, Maher MM, Blake MA, Lucey BC, Karau K, Toth TL, Avinash G, Halpern EF, Saini S. Detection and characterization of lesions on low-radiation-dose abdominal CT images postprocessed with noise reduction filters. Radiology. 2004 Sep;232(3):791-7. PMID:15333797
- Kalra MK, Maher MM, Toth TL, Kamath RS, Halpern EF, Saini S. Radiation from "extra" images acquired with abdominal and/or pelvic CT: effect of automatic tube current modulation.Radiology. 2004 Aug;232(2):409-14. PMID:15286312
- Kalra MK, Maher MM, Rizzo S, Saini S. Radiation exposure and projected risks with multidetector-row computed tomography scanning: clinical strategies and technologic developments for dose reduction.J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2004 Jul-Aug;28 Suppl 1:S46-9. PMID:15258493
- Kalra MK, Maher MM, Rizzo S, Kanarek D, Shepard JA. Radiation exposure from chest CT: issues and strategies.J Korean Med Sci. 2004 Apr;19(2):159-66. PMID:15082885
- Kalra MK, Maher MM, Saini S. Multislice CT: update on radiation and screening.Eur Radiol. 2003 Dec;13 Suppl 5:M129-33. PMID:14989623
- Kalra MK, Maher MM, Toth TL, Hamberg LM, Blake MA, Shepard JA, Saini S. Strategies for CT radiation dose optimization.Radiology. 2004 Mar;230(3):619-28. PMID:14739312
- Kalra MK, Maher MM, Prasad SR, Hayat MS, Blake MA, Varghese J, Halpern EF, Saini S. Correlation of patient weight and cross-sectional dimensions with subjective image quality at standard dose abdominal CT. Korean J Radiol. 2003 Oct-Dec;4(4):234-8. PMID:14726640
- Maher MM, Kalra MK, Toth TL, Wittram C, Saini S, Shepard J. Application of rational practice and technical advances for optimizing radiation dose for chestCT. J Thorac Imaging. 2004 Jan;19(1):16-23. PMID:14712126
- Kalra MK, Maher MM, Sahani DV, Blake MA, Hahn PF, Avinash GB, Toth TL, Halpern E, Saini S. Low-dose CT of the abdomen: evaluation of image improvement with use of noise reduction filters pilot study. Radiology. 2003 Jul;228(1):251-6. PMID:12832586
- Kalra MK, Wittram C, Maher MM, Sharma A, Avinash GB, Karau K, Toth TL, Halpern E, Saini S, Shepard JA. Can noise reduction filters improve low-radiation-dose chest CT images? Pilot study.Radiology. 2003 Jul;228(1):257-64.
Publications during 2014/2015:
- Murphy KP, Crush L, Twomey M, McLaughlin PD, Mildenberger IC, Moore N, Bye J, O'Connor OJ, McSweeney SE, Shanahan F, Maher MM. Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction in CT Enterography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2015 Dec;205(6):1173-81. PMID: 26587922.
- Kinsella S, Murphy K, Breen M, O'Neill S, McLaughlin P, Coyle J, Bogue C, O'Neill F, Moore N, McGarrigle A, Molloy MG, Maher MM, Eustace JA. Comparison of single CT scan assessment of bone mineral density, vascular calcification and fat mass with standard clinical measurements in renal transplant subjects: the ABC HeART study. BMC Nephrol. 2015 Nov 11;16(1):188. PMID: 26558994.
- El Khiyat I, Alouan A, Mahdi Y, Kharmoum J, Cherkaoui O, Tachfouti S, Amazouzi A, Daoudi R, Maher M, Cherradi N. [Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of the orbit with intracranial extension]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2015 Nov;38(9):e211-3. PMID: 26321651.
- Crowley MP, O'Neill SB, Kevane B, O'Neill DC, Eustace JA, Cahill MR, Bird B, Maher MM, O'Regan K, O'Shea D. Ionizing radiation exposure as a result of diagnostic imaging in patients with lymphoma. Clin Transl Oncol. 2015 Aug 26. PMID: 26307754.
- Nardelli P, Khan KA, Corvò A, Moore N, Murphy MJ, Twomey M, O'Connor OJ, Kennedy MP, Estépar RS, Maher MM, Cantillon-Murphy P. Optimizing parameters of an open-source airway segmentation algorithm using different CT images. Biomed Eng Online. 2015 Jun
- Murphy KP, Twomey M, McLaughlin PD, O'Connor OJ, Maher MM. Imaging of Ischemia, Obstruction and Infection in the Abdomen. Radiol Clin North Am. 2015 Jul;53(4):847-69, ix-x. PMID: 26046514.
- Murphy KP, Maher MM, O'Connor OJ. Abdominal ablation techniques. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2015 May;204(5):W495-502. PMID: 25905955.
- Murphy KP, Crush L, O'Malley E, Daly FE, Twomey M, O'Tuathaigh CM, Maher MM, Cryan JF, O'Connor OJ. Medical student perceptions of radiology use in anatomy teaching. Anat Sci Educ. 2015 Nov 12;8(6):510-7. PMID: 25516061.
- Sullivan CJ, Murphy KP, McLaughlin PD, Twomey M, O'Regan KN, Power DG, Maher MM, O'Connor OJ. Radiation exposure from diagnostic imaging in young patients with testicular cancer. Eur Radiol. 2015 Apr;25(4):1005-13. PMID: 25500962.
- Khan KA, Kennedy MP, Moore E, Crush L, Prendeville S, Maher MM, Burke L, Henry MT. Radiological characteristics, histological features and clinical outcomes of lung cancer patients with coexistent idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Lung. 2015 Feb;193(1):71-7. PMID: 25381634.
- Murphy KP, O'Connor OJ, Maher MM. Updated imaging nomenclature for acute pancreatitis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2014 Nov;203(5):W464-9. doi:10.2214/AJR.13.12222. Review. PubMed PMID: 25341160.
- Murphy KP, O'Connell OJ, O'Connor OJ, Plant BJ, Maher MM. Cumulative radiation exposure to abdominal organs in patients with cystic fibrosis should not be forgotten. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014 Oct 15;190(8):961-2. PMID: 25317469.
- McWilliams SR, Murphy KP, Golestaneh S, O'Regan KN, Arellano RS, Maher MM, O'Connor OJ. Reduction of guide needle streak artifact in CT-guided biopsy. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2014 Dec;25(12):1929-35. PMID: 25311968.
- Murphy KP, Crush L, McLaughlin PD, O'Sullivan HS, Twomey M, Lynch S, Bye J, McSweeney SE, O'Connor OJ, Shanahan F, Maher MM. The role of pure iterative reconstruction in conventional dose CT enterography. Abdom Imaging. 2015 Feb;40(2):251-7. PMID: 25139642.
- Moloney F, Murphy KP, Twomey M, O'Connor OJ, Maher MM. Haematuria: an imaging guide. Adv Urol. 2014;2014:414125. PMID: 25136357.
- Murphy KP, Crush L, O'Malley E, Daly FE, O'Tuathaigh CM, O'Connor OJ, Cryan JF, Maher MM. Medical student knowledge regarding radiology before and after a radiological anatomy module: implications for vertical integration and self-directed learning. Insights Imaging. 2014 Oct;5(5):629-34. PMID: 25107581.
- Breen M, Murphy KP, O'Neill SB, O'Donovan JP, McWilliams S, Desmond AN, Shanahan F, Quigley EM, Maher MM. The utilisation and diagnostic yield of radiological imaging in a specialist functional GI disorder clinic: an 11-year retrospective study. Eur Radiol. 2014 Dec;24(12):3097-104. PMID: 25059676.
- Murphy KP, O'Connor OJ, Maher MM. Adult abdominal hernias. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2014 Jun;202(6):W506-11. PMID: 24848843.
- Ho IK, Cash B, Cohen H, Hanauer SB, Inkster M, Johnson DA, Maher MM, Rex DK, Saad A, Singh A, Rehani MM, Quigley EM. Radiation exposure in gastroenterology: improving patient and staff protection. Am J Gastroenterol. 2014 Aug;109(8):1180-94. PMID: 24842339.
- Hayes SA, Breen M, McLaughlin PD, Murphy KP, Henry MT, Maher MM, Ryan MF. Communication of unexpected and significant findings on chest radiographs with an automated PACS alert system. J Am Coll Radiol. 2014 Aug;11(8):791-5. PMID: 24818987.
- Cushen SJ, Power DG, Teo MY, Maceneaney P, Maher MM, McDermott R, O'Sullivan K, Ryan AM. Body Composition by Computed Tomography as a Predictor of Toxicity in Patients With Renal Cell Carcinoma Treated With Sunitinib. Am J Clin Oncol. 2014 Apr 21. PMID: 24685884.
- Moloney F, Ryan D, McCarthy L, McCarthy J, Burke L, Henry MT, Kennedy MP, Hinchion J, McSweeney S, Maher MM, O'Regan K. Increasing the accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/CT interpretation of "mildly positive" mediastinal nodes in the staging of non-small cell lung cancer. Eur J Radiol. 2014 May;83(5):843-7. PMID: 24581594.
- Kelly D, Moran C, Maher M, O'Mahony S. Malignancy-associated gastroparesis: an important and overlooked cause of chronic nausea and vomiting. BMJ Case Rep. 2014 Feb 10;2014. PMID: 24515229.
- McLaughlin PD, Murphy KP, Hayes SA, Carey K, Sammon J, Crush L, O'Neill F, Normoyle B, McGarrigle AM, Barry JE, Maher MM. Non-contrast CT at comparable dose to an abdominal radiograph in patients with acute renal colic; impact of terative reconstruction on image quality and diagnostic performance. Insights Imaging. 2014 Apr;5(2):217-30. PubMed PMID: 24500656.
- McLaughlin PD, Murphy KP, Crush L, O'Connor OJ, Coyle JP, Brennan CR, Suhail A, Kelly D, Maher MM. Computed tomography colonography technique: the role of intracolonic gas volume. Radiol Res Pract. 2013;2013:517246. PMID: 24455246.
- Murphy KP, McLaughlin PD, O'Connor OJ, Maher MM. Imaging the small bowel. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2014 Mar;30(2):134-40. PMID: 24419291.