Optimising practice feedback to improve diabetes care (OPTI AUDIT - GP)

The OPTI AUDIT-GP will draw on user-centred design principles to optimise an electronic audit and feedback system for diabetes care in general practice. User-centred design involves engaging with end-users to ensure the electronic system they are working with is easy to use and meets their needs. Experts argue that audit and feedback will be more effective if end-users are involved in the design of its delivery. Evidence suggests that better audit and feedback delivery can lead to better professional practice.

The project is a collaboration between the Health Research Implementation Hub at the School of Public Health in UCC and the Diabetes in General Practice initiative (DiGP). DiGP is a General Practice led initiative whose aim is to provide an environment for GPs and practice nurses to ensure best practice in their management of diabetes, through peer support, education, and audit. To date, it consists of 86 general practices in Cork and Kerry. The study is led by Dr Sheena McHugh and the Lead Knowledge User is Dr Suzanne Kelly. Over the course of the project, research will be carried out by David Healy. The project is funded by the Health Research Board (HRB) Applied Partnership Award (APA)2022

Why are we doing this research?

Diabetes mellitus is a common, long-term condition that leads to elevated blood sugar due to either a lack of insulin or insulin resistance. With the number of people living with diabetes increasing globally, innovations in healthcare delivery are required to mitigate this. By optimising audit and feedback in general practice, we aim to support health professionals to deliver guideline recommended care to people with diabetes and identify opportunities to improve practice. 

What is involved?

There are four work packages:

  • Work package 1: A review of international examples of audit and feedback, and the development of a paper prototype.
  • Work package 2: To understand GPs’ and practice nurses’ (end-users) preferences for clinical performance feedback based on their experiences with current audit programmes and views on best practice recommendations.
  • Work package 3: To develop a revised electronic audit and feedback prototype based on end-users’ preferences and carry out user testing with GPs and practice nurses.
  • Work package 4: Knowledge Translation - to engage in integrated translation and disseminate the research findings to enable knowledge users to make decisions and implement actions over the life of the project and beyond.


Using an established audit cycle for diabetes in general practice, we will evaluate the usability of an electronic audit and feedback system for GPs and practice nurses through a user-centred design process. The feedback system will be developed and tested iteratively, drawing on GPs’ and practice nurses’ preferences, theory, and evidence of best practice. The findings will inform decisions of DiGP (the knowledge user) about the design of their audit and feedback cycle to drive improvements in the quality of care and outcomes for patients with diabetes.

OPTI AUDIT-GP Project Outputs:


  • AUDGPI & ICGP Joint Annual Scientific Meeting 2024, University of Limerick, Ireland (Poster Presentation) 'Identifying design features of diabetes audit and feedback interventions in primary care: a rapid review'. Presenter: David Healy. 8-9 March 2024
  • AUDGPI & ICGP Joint Annual Scientific Meeting 2024, University of Limerick, Ireland (poster Presentation) ' Understanding preferences for the delivery of diabetes audit feedback in general practice: a qualitative interview study'. Presenter: David Healy. 8-9 March 2024.

Health Implementation Research Hub

School of Public Health, Western Gateway Building, T12 XF62,