Past Papers

Past papers are available on the Library site



A Guide to the Harvard System of Referencing is available here;

What is Referencing? Referencing is a standardised method of acknowledging sources of information and ideas that you have used in your assignment in a way that uniquely identifies their source.

Direct quotations, facts and figures, as well as ideas and theories, from both published and unpublished works must be referenced

Why Reference? Referencing is necessary to avoid plagiarism, to verify quotations, and to enable readers to follow-up and read more fully the cited author’s arguments.

What is the Harvard referencing style? Harvard is only one of the manifold referencing styles available. It is the policy of the Politics staff that the Harvard system is the recommended reference style for Politics students at UCC.

The reasons for the programme team’s policy decision include:

The relative simplicity of the Harvard system;

Its wide use in most Politics programmes;

Its wide use in many Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences programmes; and

 The need for students to learn the discipline of implementing a referencing system.

The system is easy to use. At its simplest it comprises the following general characteristics:

1.      Within the text of the assignment the author’s name is given first, followed by the publication date, and then the page number.

2.      A reference list at the end of the assignment contains the full details of all the in-text citations.

Other reference systems may be used by students so long as they are recognised referencing systems, are consistently applied throughout the student’s piece of written of work, and are not invented referencing systems.

Steps Involved in the Harvard System

Note down the full bibliographic details including the page number(s) from which the information is taken.

In the case of a book, ‘bibliographical details’ refers to: author/editor, year of publication, title, edition, volume number, place of publication and publisher as found on the front and back of the title page. (Not all of these details will necessarily be applicable).

In the case of a journal article, the details required include: author of the article, year of publication, title of the article, title of the journal, volume and issue number of the journal, and page numbers.

For all electronic information, in addition to the above you should note the date that you accessed the information, and database name or web address (URL).

Insert the citation at the appropriate place within the text of the document

Provide a reference list (also known as a bibliography) at the end of the document

If you adopt the Harvard system, you are required to be completely familiar with it, to implement it correctly and in full in your written essay/project assessments during the course of the teaching year. (Note: Referencing is not required during formal written examinations). Otherwise assessments will be marked down or students will be liable to allegations of plagiarism.


Blackboard information and link

Link to Blackboard, Click here

First year site Politics site:   Course PO1001 Introduction to Politics


Second year Politics site:      To enroll Click on the Courses tab.

                                                Type in

                                                Second-Year Politics Symposium 

                                                in the Course Search box and hit Go


Third year Politics site:         To enroll Click on the Courses tab.

                                               Type in

                                               Third-Year Politics Symposium 

                                                in the Course Search box and hit Go

Department of Government & Politics Office

Room 2.48, 2nd floor, T12 YN60