CCJHR Annual Conference

Marriage Equality, Relationship Recognition and Non-Discrimination: Securing Equality and Rights?

One day conference

March 28th 2014, 11.00 – 5.00pm

CCJHR Annual Conference Programme and Booking Information

Chaired by: The Hon Mr Justice John Hedigan

Speakers include:

Speakers' Biographies: March 28 2014 Annual Conference Bios

Venue: Brookfield Health Sciences, BHSC Room GO1 , Brookfield Health Sciences Complex (BHSC) is located on the western side of the main UCC campus. http://conferencing.ucc.ie/MapUCC.htm

6 CPD Group points available

  • Registration Fee: €60  (full rate)
  • Reduced rate: €30 - the reduced fee is available to NGOs, barristers in their first five years in practice, trainee solicitors and solicitors with up to three years post qualification experience).
  • Student registration (available to full-time students with valid ID) - €20

Advanced registration is essential. Online booking available at:


Alternatively please post booking fee (cheques made payable to CCJHR, Law Department, UCC) to


Marriage Equality  Seminar-2014

Department of Law,

University College Cork

Cork, Ireland


Registration Fees

Full rate: €60

Reduced rate: €30

The reduced fee is available to NGOs, barristers in their first five years in practice, trainee solicitors and solicitors with up to three years post-qualification experience.

Student rate: €20 (available to full-time students with a valid ID card)


Email: ccjhr@ucc.ie

Tel:+353-( 0)21-4903220.



Setting the Agenda: http://www.ucc.ie/en/ccjhr/

Securing marriage equality has been described as the ‘civil rights issue of our generation’. The proposed constitutional reform follows on from significant legislative reforms in Ireland on civil partnerships, and further pending legislative reform on children’s rights and family relationships. Across Europe and internationally, constitutional and legislative reforms are taking place addressing rights to same sex marriage, sexual orientation and gender identity discrimination in areas such as adoption, guardianship and custody of children and more broadly in the field of relationship recognition. International human rights bodies, including the European and Inter-American Courts of Human Rights, and constitutional courts, are developing a significant body of jurisprudence on the scope and limits of anti-discrimination norms, and on the positive obligations arising for states to provide for marriage equality and relationship recognition.  This conference brings together leading human rights advocates, lawyers and academics to address the many pressing questions that now face Ireland and other jurisdictions engaging in comprehensive reforms of family, constitutional, equality and human rights law.

Conference convenor: Prof Siobhán Mullally, Director, Centre for Criminal Justice and Human Rights, UCC, email s.mullally@ucc.ie and Dr Claire Murray, CCJHR, c.murray@ucc.ie



This event is supported by an Irish Research Council New Foundations award, the College of Business and Law and the Gender Law and Sexuality research cluster (GLAS), CCJHR.

Law and the Environment Conference 2014

Law and the Environment 2014, 12th Annual Conference for Environmental Professionals

Integrated Approaches to Environmental Law and Regulation

Thursday, 3rd April 2014

University College Cork


This conference is supported by funding from the EPA, the Department of Environment, Community and Local Government and from the Department of An Taoiseach Communicating Europe Initiative.

Conference Brochure: Law & the Environment 2014

Communicating Europe 

Department of Environment, Community and Local Government

EPA Research

Delegates may register at :http://www.uccconferencing.ie/product/law-environment-2014-integrated-approaches-environmental-law-regulation-03042014/


Conference Programme:

8.30 a.m.         Registration and Tea / Coffee (Boole Basement)

8.40 a.m.         Opening Remarks: Dr. Owen McIntyre, Conference Convenor


Plenary Session 1 - Regulators and Utilities: The Emerging Landscape

Chair:              Ms. Deborah Spence, Aurthur Cox Solicitors, Dublin

8.45 a.m.         Dr. Raphael Heffron, School of Law, University of Stirling:

‘A New Role for the Irish Energy Regulator’

9.15 a.m.         Mr. Tom Flynn B.L., Law Library, Dublin:

‘The Proposed Planning Regulator: Problems and PossibilitiesTom Flynn Presentation

9.45 a.m.         Ms. Orla Joyce, Solicitor, Irish Water:           

'Irish Water - the New National Utility' Orla Joyce Presentation


Plenary Session 2 – Integrative Approaches in EU Environmental Law / Policy (Boole 4)

Chair:              Ms. Alison Fanagan, A&L Goodbody Solicitors, Dublin

10.15 a.m.       Ms. Silvija Aile, EU Commission, DG Environment:

‘EU Cohesion policy 2014-2020 and EU Semester’ Silvija Aile Presentation

10.45 a.m.       Prof. William Howarth, School of Law, University of Kent:

‘Assessment under the EU Strategic Environmental Assessment and Water Framework Directives’ William Howarth Presentation


11.15 a.m.       Tea / Coffee (Boole Basement)


Parallel Session 3 - Corporate Law, Corporate Social Responsibilty and the Environment (Boole 4)

Chair:              Mr. Joseph Noonan, Noonan Linehan Carroll Coffey Solicitors, Cork         

11.30 a.m.       Prof. Irene Lynch-Fannon, Faculty of Law, University College Cork:

‘Corporate Social Responsibilty and the Environment- Why a Non-Regulatory Approach to Corporate Action is More Successful Here Than in Other Areas?’ Irene Lynch Fannon Presentation Irene Lynch Fannon Paper

12.00 p.m.       Prof. Lorraine Talbot, School of Law, Warwick University:

‘Considering Social Sustainability in Company Law Reform: Corporate Goals and Organisational Innovations’ Lorraine Talbot Paper

12.30 p.m.       Dr. Blanca Mamutse, School of Law, University of Surrey:

‘Alleviating the Tension between Corporate Rescue and Environmental Responsibility’ Blanca Mamutsa Presentation


Parallel Session 4 – Marine Environmental Law I (Boole 3)

Chair:              Dr. Valerie Cummins, Director, Irish Maritime and Energy Resources Cluster (IMERC), University College Cork

11.30 a.m.       Dr. Anne Marie O’Hagan, HMRC, University College Cork:

Maritime Area and Foreshore (Amendment) Bill 2013 Anne Marie O'Hagan Presentation

12.00 p.m.       Mr. Eoin Fannon, Office of the Attorney General

‘Harnessing Our Ocean Wealth – Issues for An integrated Marine Plan for Ireland’

12.30 p.m.       Dr. Karin Dubsky, Coastwatch Ireland:

‘The Marine Strategy Framework Directive: Integrating Delivery on Select Descriptors with Waste and Nature Conservation Law’ Karen Dubsky Presentation


Parallel Session 5 - Developments in Planning Law (Boole 5)

Chair:              Ms. Finola McCarthy, Ronan Daly Jermyn Solicitors, Cork

11.30 a.m.       Dr. Berna Grist, School of Planning and Environmental Policy, University College Dublin:

‘Planning Law vs. Planning Practice: inconsistency, accommodation and corruptionBerna Grist Presentation

12.00 p.m.       Mr. Kieran Cummins, Kieran Cummins Consulting:

‘Lacunae in the Planning Code’ Kieran Cummins Presentation

12.30 p.m.       Ms. Eva Barrett, Assistant Lecturer (National University of Ireland, Maynooth); PhD Candidate (Trinity College Dublin); Solicitor:

'The Argument for the Broader Application of the SEA Directive: Potential Implications of a Misinterpretation of EU Case Law for the Irish Wind Energy Sector' Eva Barrett Presentation


1.00 – 2.15 p.m.          Lunch (Mini-Rest)


Parallel Session 6 - Nature Conservation / Biodiversity Law (Boole 4) 

Chair:              Prof. John O’Halloran, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University College Cork

2.15 p.m.         Prof. Colin Reid, School of Law, University of Dundee:

'Diversification and Integration in Biodiversity Law' Colin Reid Presentation

2.45 p.m.         Dr. Owen McIntyre, Faculty of Law, University College Cork:

‘The Appropriate Assessment Process and Ecosystem “Integrity” under the Habitats Directive’ Owen McIntyre Presentation

3.15 p.m.         Ms. Rachel Minch, Philip Lee Solicitors, Dublin:

'The Interaction between Assessments under the EIA and Habitats Directives' Rachel Minch Presentation


Parallel Session 7 - Marine Environmental Law II (Boole 3)

Chair:              Mr. Conor Mowlds, Head of the National Maritime College of Ireland, Ringaskiddy, Cork

2.15 p.m.         Dr. Bénédicte Sage, Faculty of Law, University College Cork

Unmanned Ships: Emerging Legal Issues from an Environmental Perspective’ Bénédicte Sage-Fuller Presentation

2.45 p.m.         Prof. Ronan Long, School of Law, National University of Ireland Galway,

‘Challenges and Conundrums in EU Energy & Marine Environmental Law’

3.15 p.m.         Ms. Helen Noble, Campbell Johnston Clarke Solicitors

‘Pollution by the Shipping Industry: Current Vessels and the Next Generation of Ships’  Helen Noble Presentation


Parallel Session 8 – Environmental Protection and the Regulation and Use of Markets and Technology: New Challenges and Opportunities (Boole 5)


Chair:              Mr. David Holland S.C., Law Library, Dublin

2.45 p.m.         Prof. Geert van Calster, School of Law, KU Leuven:

'Integrating Environment, Energy and New Technologies: A Discussion of the 'Incremental' Approach for Shale Gas and Nanotechnology Regulation'

3.15 p.m.         Mr. Ronán Kennedy, School of Law, National University of Ireland Galway:

‘Information and Communication Technology and Environmental Regulation: Critical Perspectives’ Ronán Kennedy Presentation


3.45 p.m.         Tea Coffee (Boole Basement)


Plenary Session 9 – Access to Environmental Justice: Innovation and Impact (Boole 4)

Chair:              Prof. Ursula Kilkelly, Dean, Faculty of Law, University College Cork

4.00 p.m.         Ms. Fiona Marshall, Aarhus Convention Secretariat, UNECE, Geneva:
 'Promoting Environmental Democracy and Justice - The Integrative Role of the Aarhus Convention Compliance Committee' Fiona Marshall Presentation

4.30 p.m.         Prof. Richard Macrory, Faculty of Laws, University College London:

'The Long and Winding Road - Towards a Specialist Environment Court in England and Wales'

5.00 p.m.         Dr. Áine Ryall, Faculty of Law, University College Cork:

‘Reflections on the Future of Environmental Justice in Ireland’ Áine Ryall Presentation


5.30 p.m.         Closing Remarks

6.00 p.m.         Reception and Book Launch (Staff Common Room), kindly sponsored by Ronan Daly Jermyn Solicitors:

The Precautionary Principle in Marine Environmental Law, With Special Reference to High Risk Vessels, by Dr. Bénédicte Sage-Fuller (Routledge, 2013)

Ronan Daly Jermyn

Colm O'Cinnéide to talk at CCJHR, UCC

Integrating Equality and Human Rights

 Colm O'Cinnéide head shot

Colm O’Cinnéide, University College London

   Thursday Feb 13th, 4-6pm

Venue: Moot Court Room, Aras na Laoi




Colm O'Cinnéide is a Reader in Law, specialising in human rights, comparative constitutional and anti-discrimination law. He is also currently Vice-President of the European Committee of Social Rights. The recently published report of the European Committee on Social Rights on Ireland (Conclusions), is available at: http://bit.ly/1iaGppp

Colm is a member of the Blackstone Chambers Academic Panel. Colm has served as specialist legal adviser to the Joint Committee on Human Rights of the UK Parliament and has also acted as consultant to a range of organisations, including the Northern Irish Human Rights Commission, the UK Equality and Human Rights Commission and the Irish Equality Authority. Colm is a graduate of UCC.

Colm is the author (with Neil Crowther) of a recent report examining the integration of human rights and equality bodies across the EU, including Ireland. Details available at: http://www.edf.org.uk/blog/?p=29767

This event is supported by the Irish Research Council, (New Foundations award). For details, contact s.mullally@ucc.ie

Advance booking not required, 2 x CPD group points available

Developments in Prosecutions of Crimes of Sexual Violence: perspectives from international criminal law

Justice Teresa Doherty, former Judge of the Special Court of Sierra Leone

‘Developments in Prosecutions of Crimes of Sexual Violence: perspectives from international criminal law’

         Justice Teresa Doherty, former Judge of the Special Court of Sierra Leone              

Monday, Feb 10th 2014, 4-6pm, Moot Court room

(first floor Áras na Laoi, to the left of the Law Dept reception office)

All WELCOME (advance booking not required)

Justice Teresa Doherty is from Northern Ireland. She returned to study law in Belfast after working as a civil servant and as a volunteer in Zambia. She worked in legal aid clinics in Belfast as a student in the early 1970s. From 1976 to 1987, she worked in Papua New Guinea, first in the Public Solicitor’s (public defender) office, then as provincial legal officer for Morobe Province. For some years she was the only woman lawyer in that part of Papua New Guinea and was the first woman to be elected as a councillor of the Papua New Guinea Law Society. She was appointed as the Principal Magistrate for the Momase region of Papua New Guinea in 1987 and as National and later Supreme Court judge in 1988, the first woman to hold any high judicial office in the Pacific Islands Region. Her work took her throughout Papua New Guinea and she particularly focussed on prisoners’ and women’s issues. She returned to Northern Ireland and to the bar in late 1997. She was appointed a judge of the High Court of Sierra Leone in 2003 following the civil war in that country and also sat in the Court of Appeal. She was appointed by the United Nations in January 2005 as a judge of the Special Court of Sierra Leone (the international war crimes tribunal for Sierra Leone) and was elected the first presiding judge of Trial Chamber 11.

She is a Parole Commissioner for Northern Ireland, a part time chairman of Appeal Services, a member of the Commonwealth Reference Group for the promotion of the Rights of Women and the Girl Child. She has received recognition for her work including a CBE and an Honorary Doctor of Laws.

Conversations on Gender, Law and Sexuality (Gender, Law and Sexuality (GLAS), Faculty of Law, UCC).

2 x CPD group points available

Gender, Security and Islam

CCJHR banner logo

Centre for Criminal Justice and Human Rights, Faculty of Law and School of Asian Studies, UCC


Gender, Security and Islam: Negotiating religion, culture and conflict in Pakistan



Prof Shaheen Sardar-Ali, Professor of Law, University of Warwick and Vice-President UN Working Group on Arbitrary Detention

‘The Dynamics of Family Law Reform in Pakistan: A Gender Perspective’


Prof Javaid Rehman, Professor of Islamic Law and Human Rights, Brunel Law School

'Sexual Minorities and Islamic State Practices: Examining the issue of the rights of LGBT and other sexual minorities in Pakistan'.



Thursday Jan 23rd, 3-5pm

Venue: Aras na Laoi, Moot Court room

(first floor, to the left of the Law Dept reception office)


All Welcome


This event is organised in association with the LLM in International Human Rights Law and Public Policy, UCC Faculty of Law


Biography: Professor Shaheen Sardar-Ali

Shaheen Ali is Professor of Law at the University of Warwick, and Vice-Chair of the UN Working Group on Arbitrary Detention. She has an LLB (Peshawar), LLM (Hull), MA (Peshawar) and PhD (Hull) and has written extensively in the field of Islamic law, human rights, women and child rights. She was formerly Professor of Law University of Peshawar, Pakistan for twenty-five years and Director Women's Study Centre at the same university. Shaheen served on the National Commission of Inquiry on Women as well as the Prime Minister's Consultative Committee on Women in Pakistan. She also served as the first woman cabinet Minister for Health, Population Welfare and Women's Development in the Government of the Khyber Pukhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan (formerly known as the North west Frontier Province) and the first Chair of the National Commission on the Status of Women of Pakistan. Shaheen has consulted with a range of national and international organisations including the British Council, DFID, NORAD, UNICEF, UNIFEM, UNDP to name a few, as well as providing expert legal opinions in the area of Islamic law in UK and US courts. She was also a member of the British Council Task Force on Gender and Development and a founder member and Co-ordinator of the South Asian Research network on Gender, Law and Governance (SARN). She is a member of the International Advisory Board of the University of Oslo and is recipient of numerous honours and awards for her work on Muslim women’s rights. She has published extensively on issues relating to Islamic Law, Gender and Human Rights.


Professor Javaid Rehman is Head of the School of Law at Brunel University, London and Professor of Islamic Law, Muslim constitutionalism and human rights. He was born and brought up in Punjab, Pakistan. After having received his first University degree in History and English Literature (Government College Lahore, Punjab University), he came to the United Kingdom where he studied Law (LLB, Hons.) at the University of Reading. He completed a PhD in International Law in 1995 (Hull University, UK) and was appointed to his first full-time lectureship in September 1996 at the Law Department, Leeds University. He was invited to take up a Chair in Law at Ulster University in 2002. Since August 2005, Javaid Rehman has been a Professor of Islamic Law, Muslim constitutionalism and International Law at Brunel University. He has been invited to provide legal opinion in a number of high profile cases involving Islamic law, international terrorism and human rights law. Professor Rehman has written extensively on the subject of Islamic Law, International human rights and minority rights, with over one hundred publications to his credit. His recent works include International Human Rights Law (Longman, 2010), Islamic State Practices, International Law and the threat from Terrorism (Hart Publishing, 2005), and (with SC Breau) (eds) Religion, Human Rights and Interntional Law (ILA). He is on the editorial boards of several journals. He was until recentlyutil recently the General Coordinating Editor of the Asian Yearbook of International Law (AYIL) and is currntly a joint co-editor of the Journal of Islamic State Practices in International Law (JISPIL). Profesor Rehman has been involved at various levels of policy making and has also acted as an advisor to various governmental and non-governmental organisations on counter-terrorism issues as well as civil liberties and human rights law.

This event is supported by an IRC New Foundations Award.

Irish Research Council

Migrant Workers in the Gulf

‘Migrant Workers in the Gulf: Challenges of Human Rights Activism and Advocacy’

 Dr Nicholas McGeehan, Human Rights Watch, London

Irish Research Council 



Monday: January 20th

Time: 12.30-2pm

Venue: Law Dept, Áras na Laoi, Room AL1.64 (first floor)


All Welcome



Nicholas McGeehan is the Bahrain, Qatar, and United Arab Emirates researcher at the leading international human rights NGO, Human Rights Watch. His advocacy and research has focused primarily on issues relating to migrant domestic workers, child slavery and the exploitation of migrant construction workers in the Arabian Gulf. Dr McGeehan is a graduate of the European University Institute, Florence, NUI Galway, and the University of Strathclyde. Prior to working for Human Rights Watch, he founded and managed an NGO that campaigned for migrant workers’ rights in the Gulf. He is the author of numerous journal articles and comment pieces, including, most recently: “Trafficking in persons or state sanctioned exploitation? The false narrative of migrant workers in the United Arab Emirates”, in Immigration, Asylum and Nationality Law (2012, Vol. 26, No. 1) and; ‘Spinning Slavery: The Role of the United States and UNICEF in the Denial of Justice for the Child Camel Jockeys of the United Arab Emirates’, Journal of Human Rights Practice, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pp. 96-124. Dr McGeehan is a regular contributor to the Guardian on issues relating to migrant workers’ rights, and has also produced a documentary, The Sand Trap, on child slavery and ‘how to get away with it’, examining the exploitation of child camel jockeys in Dubai and Abu Dhabi.


This event is supported by an IRC New Foundations Award.

Insolvency and Rescue Seminar

Ronan Daly Jermyn

Insolvency and Rescue Seminar


Friday, 24th January 2014

2.30pm - 5.00pm


Lecture Theatre G10: Brookfield Health Sciences Complex, College Road


Programme: Insolvency and Rescue Seminar 2014


Chair  The Honourable Ms. Justice Marie Baker, Judge of the High Court


2.30                Registration and Tea/Coffee


3.00                Welcome

Opening Remarks from Professor Ursula Kilkelly,       

Dean of the Faculty of Law.


3.10                Recent Changes in the Insolvency and Rescue Landscape

Professor Irene Lynch Fannon, Faculty and Department of Law, University College Cork.

Review of suggested changes to the Personal Insolvency Act 2012, commencement of the new Bankruptcy process and new jurisdiction for the Circuit Court in relation to the Examinership procedure. 


3.30                      The Challenges of Implementing the Personal Insolvency Act 2012

Gerard Nicholas Murphy BL

Review of the operation of the Personal Insolvency Act 2012, the role of the Personal Insolvency Practitioner and the stages involved in a successful Debt Settlement Arrangement and Personal Insolvency Arrangement.


4.00                Debt and Taxes - An Overview of Recent Developments in the Area of Tax and Insolvency.

Eoin Tobin, Ronan Daly Jermyn, Solicitors, Cork.           


4.30                      Panel Discussion- Questions and Answers.


This event is kindly sponsored by Ronan Daly Jermyn Solicitors.


The event will be followed by a reception in the Jennings Gallery, BHSC, for The Honourable Ms. Justice Marie Baker hosted by the Faculty of Law at University College Cork.




Brookfield Health Sciences Complex (BHSC) is located on the western side of the main UCC campus.  http://conferencing.ucc.ie/MapUCC.htm



Parking is very limited on the main campus area of UCC and at Brookfield. There is a car park for students and visitors on College Road which is a short walk to Brookfield.


2 CPD General Points Available



Fee 60 Euro (Full Rate). 30 Euro (Reduced rate - the reduced fee is available to barristers in their first five years in practice, trainee solicitors and solicitors with up to three years post qualification experience).


Online bookings can be made through the UCC Conferencing website.


Alternatively please post booking fee (cheques made payable to Law Department, UCC) to


Law Events

Insolvency Law Seminar-2014

Department of Law,

University College, Cork.


Email: lawevents@ucc.ie

Tel: 021-4903220.


The Faculty of Law reserves the right to substitute and to rearrange presentations if necessary.

Details of Faculty of Law events are available at http://www.ucc.ie/en/lawsite/eventsandnews/


Maximising Digital Creativity, Sharing and Innovation

 Maximising Digital Creativity, Sharing and Innovation


Event organised by Creative Commons Ireland and Faculty of Law, University College Cork

Lecture Theatre, National Gallery of Ireland, Clare Street entrance, Dublin 2

Friday 17 January 2014, 9:45 a.m. to 1 p.m.


Supported by Creative Commons Corporation


Supported by E Law Summer Institute, Faculty of Law, University College Cork




Speakers will include:


Kristina Alexanderson, Photographer and Creative Commons Sweden 
Louise Crowley, UCC Faculty of Law and CC Ireland
Gwen Franck, Creative Commons Regional Co-ordinator for Europe  
Breeda Herlihy, Manager of Cork Open Research Archive, University College Cork    
Aidan McCullen, CEO of Communicorp Digital 
Marie McFeely, Images and Licensing Officer, National Gallery of Ireland 
Eoin O’Dell, chairperson of the Copyright Review Committee

Antoin O Lachtnain, Digital Rights Ireland

Denis Parfenov, Ambassador for Ireland at Open Knowledge Foundation
David Post,  Temple Law School, Philadelphia
Alek Tarkowski, Creative Commons Poland

Darius Whelan, UCC Faculty of Law and CC Ireland



For further information and to reserve a place, visit




The International Criminal Court: current challenges/future prospects

The Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade and the Centre for Criminal Justice and Human Rights, University College Cork, have the pleasure to invite you to a public lecture with:



Ms Fatou Bensouda: Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court


“The International Criminal Court: current challenges and future prospects”



Chaired by the Chief Justice, Ms Justice Susan Denham




Date: December 16th 2013


Venue: Royal Irish Academy, 19 Dawson St, Dublin 2

Time: 5.30pm – 7pm


To be followed by a reception (7-8pm)


Places for this event are limited. Please r.s.v.p. before December 6th to Noreen Delea at: ccjhr@ucc.ie.



On 12 December 2011, Ms Fatou Bensouda of The Gambia was elected by consensus Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court by the Assembly of States Parties. Ms. Bensouda was sworn in on 15 June 2012. Ms. Bensouda had previously held the position of ICC Deputy Prosecutor (Prosecutions), having been elected with an overwhelming majority by the Assembly of States Parties on 8 August 2004 and serving as such until May 2012. Prior to her work at the International Criminal Court, Ms. Bensouda worked as Legal Adviser and Trial Attorney at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) in Arusha, Tanzania, rising to the position of Senior Legal Adviser and Head of The Legal Advisory Unit.  Before joining the ICTR, she was General Manager of a leading commercial bank in The Gambia. Between 1987 and 2000, she was successively Senior State Counsel, Principal State Counsel, Deputy Director of Public Prosecutions, Solicitor General and Legal Secretary of the Republic, and Attorney General and Minister of Justice, in which capacity she served as Chief Legal Adviser to the President and Cabinet of The Republic of The Gambia.

School of Law

Scoil an Dlí

Room 1.63, T12 T656