Abstracts of articles
At present, abstracts are available for Volume 5 onwards.
Peritia: Volume 1 (1982)
Peritia: Volume 2 (1983)
Peritia: Volume 3 (1984)
Peritia: Volume 4 (1985
Peritia: Volume 5 (1986)
DUBTHACH MACCU LUGAIR AND A MATTER OF LIFE AND
DEATH IN THE PSEUDO-HISTORICAL PROLOGUE TO THE SENCHAS MÁR
ABSTRACT. The three extant versions of the pseudo-historical prologue to
the Senchas Már share an original core best preserved in the
Harley recension. It centre-piece, an archaising poem ascribed to Dubthach maccu
Lugair, stands revealed in translation as a sophisticated scripturally-based
argument for punishment of culpable homicide by death in spite of the christian
doctrine of forgiveness. As such, it is integrally bound up with the surrounding
prose ascribing the foundation of early Irish law to the fusion of native legal
with imported biblical concepts under clerical auspices symbolized by St
Patrick. Despite its bogus appearance as commentary, the prose must be
contemporary with the poem, which is unlikely to be post-eighth-century on
linguistic and stylistic grounds but is hardly much older either on the evidence
that Muirchú's Life of St Patrick was its main source. This earlier
dating of the prologue goes hand in hand with further evidence for the recent
revolutionary contention that so-called
rosc composition is not necessarily an archaic, oral and pagan
phenomenon but could be produced by clerics working from written Latin sources
as late as the eighth century. An annotated text of Dubthach's
rosc concludes the discussion.
KEYWORDS: foundations of law, legal history, early medieval law, legal
verse, homicide, capital punishment, medieval christian teaching, linguistics,
Old Irish, metrics, Senchas Már,
Kim McCone, Department of Old Irish, St Patrick's College, Maynooth, Co
15758 words Peritia 5 (1986) 1-35 Cork and Galway ISBN 0332-1592
THE ECCLESIASTICAL ELEMENT IN THE OLD-IRISH LEGAL TRACT
ABSTRACT. This paper examines some aspects of the Old Irish legal tract Cáin
Fhuithirbe, especially the role of the church in its compilation. This text
is of particular importance in that it can be dated on historical grounds to
within a few years of AD 680. The paper discusses the state of preservation of
the text, analyses various passages which can shed light on the date and style
of composition of, and ecclesiastical involvement in, this fragmentarily-preserved text, and concludes with a discussion of the final part of the text
which is of relevance to Patrician studies.
KEYWORDS: history, law, Irish law, glossing law texts, church, mediaeval
institutions, lordship, clientship, Old Irish, metrics, Munster, St Patrick.
Liam Breatnach, School of Irish, Trinity College, Dublin 2.
6633 words Peritia 5 (1986) 36-52 Cork and Galway ISBN 0332-1592
CRÍTH GABLACH AND THE LAW OF STATUS
ABSTRACT. This paper presents a detailed study of the determinants of social
status as set out in
Críth Gablach (c. AD 700), an Irish law tract on social
classification which attempts a systematic analysis of the status of the free
and noble classes (excluding the church and the professions) in early medieval
Irish society. The nature and determinants of status are considered and the
ranks of society set out in detail. To be a noble was to be hereditarily a lord
of freemen in clientship-lordship rather than actual income ennobled, though
other factors were relevant. For the non-noble freeman, a house, land and
material assets are the basis of status. Lordship, however, appears to be
economically central to the condition of the non-noble grades.
Críth Gablach is one of the few outstanding pieces of social
analysis from early medieval Europe.
KEYWORDS: medieval society, Irish law, status, social classes, lordship,
Thomas Charles-Edwards, Corpus Christi College, Oxford OX1 4JF, England
9433 words Peritia 5 (1986) 53-73 Cork and Galway ISSN 0332-1592
AN OLD-IRISH TEXT ON COURT PROCEDURE
ABSTRACT. This paper provides an edition, translation and discussion of a
bipartite Old-Irish text on court procedure. The first section, in
straightforward Old- Irish prose, lists the sixteen persons (or categories of
persons) who may be present at a court session and indicates where each of them
should sit in relation to the judges. This sections provides some information on
the part played by both king and judges in reaching and promulgating a verdict.
It also touches on the role of sureties, witnesses and custodians of tradition (senchaid)
in court. The second section is in the obscure rosc style and contains
early spellings which indicate that it was composed before the first section. It
seems to be a riddle about court procedure to which the answer may be
`judgement' or `verdict'.
KEYWORDS: Irish law, historical
jurisprudence, medieval history, curial procedure, court seating, judgement,
court verdict, judge, king, bishop, chief poet, advocate, litigant, sureties,
historical linguistics, Celtic, Old Irish.
Fergus Kelly, School of Celtic Studies, Dublin Institute for Advanced
Studies, 10 Burlington rd, IE- Dublin 4.
14762 words; 1 diagram Perita
5 (1986) 74-106 Cork and Galway ISSN 0332-1592
EARLY IRISH CANONS AND MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW
This paper deals with the relationships between the legal traditions of Ireland
and Wales in the middle ages and identifies two groups of borrowings from the
early eighth-century Collectio canonum Hibernensis in the lawbooks of
medieval Wales. The borrowings all come from Books xxx and xxxiv (in
Wasserschleben's edition) and deal with deposits and sureties; however, the
compilers of the Welsh lawbooks, whose earliest extant redactions date from the
late twelfth and thirteenth centuries, were plainly ignorant of the relevant
passages' ultimate Irish source. After close textual analysis of the passages in
medieval Welsh law derived from the Hibernensis, the paper discusses how the
Irish canons may have become known in Wales, and how they could have been
transmitted into the surviving texts of Welsh law. Attention is drawn to the
importance of the borrowings as a unique witness to the presence of the
Hibernensis in medieval Wales, as well as to their significance for an
understanding of the sources, ecclesiastical connections, and Irish affinities
of medieval Welsh law.
KEYWORDS: legal history, medieval law, Welsh law,
Irish law, canon law, Hiberno-Welsh relations, deposits, suretyship,
Hibernensis, Cyfraith Hywel, Liber Landavensis.
Huw Pryce, Department of History, University College of North Wales, Bangor,
UK-Gwynedd LL57 2DG
9137 words Peritia 5 (1986) 107-27 Cork and Galway
THE SISTER'S SON IN EARLY IRISH LITERATURE
TOMÁS Ó CATHASAIGH
ABSTRACT. This study of the sister's son in some of the major
early Irish narratives, in religious verse, and in the laws (and including
linguistic analysis of kindred terminology) shows that the relationship between
sister's son and maternal kindred is an important theme in the literature; the
relationship can be amicable (and accordingly be greatly beneficial to society)
or hostile (and greatly destructive of social order); the sister's son must be
integrated into society by means of a solemn contract; and the social good will
be served only if the obligations imposed by that contract are duly discharged
on both sides. The social role of the sister's son can be summed up in the word
goire, and this is reflected in
gormac, which came to replace the inherited term
nia as the designation of `sister's son'.
medieval literature, mythology, saga, Ulster cycle, Táin Bó Cúailnge,
religious verse, medieval society, social structure, kindred, sister's son,
goire, gormac, nia.
Tomás Ó Cathasaigh, Department of Early Irish, University
College, Dublin 4.
14916 words Peritia 5 (1986) 128-60 Cork and Galway
THE MEDIEVAL INQUISITION: AN INSTRUMENT OF SECULAR POLITICS? The Denis
Bethell Memorial Lecture delivered in University College Dublin, 15 February
ABSTRACT. As a clerical court the medieval
Inquisition could not impose the death penalty. So it relied on the `secular
arm' to do so. How far did this reliance lead to the subordination of the heresy
court to secular purposes? A Tuscan inquisitor, in 1332-34, is seen
systematically threatening rich victims with prosecution so that he can sell
them immunity. Such `rackets', possibly common in northern Italy, betray that
flexibility in the Inquisition which invited adaptation to communal purposes, at
a time when friars, who ran the Inquisition, were on good terms with city
governments. This mechanism was born in the early fourteenth century, from the
twin facts that the Inquisition had perfected its judicial techniques at the
very moment of its victory over the heresy for which it had been invented,
Albigensian Catharism. So it had to turn to minor unorthodoxy. But this was so
common-and `heresy' now so narrowly defined-that unorthodoxy alone was not
practicable as a trigger for prosecution. Other reasons therefore came into
play, reasons amply provided by the struggles of clerical and secular powers,
wrestling towards new relationships. This is most precisely illustrated in those
cases in which single politicians are threatened. Ghibelline Italy offers
notorious examples. More representative is that of Hugues Aubriot, prevot of
Paris (1367-81). As prevot he had trespassed on university jurisdiction, and
when matters came violently to a head in 1381-only then-the university
checkmated Aubriot by a trial for heresy. Medieval heresy and the Inquisition
should be treated as two subjects, not one: their fortunes obey different sets
of impulses, and in those governing the Inquisition, at least, politics play a
KEYWORDS: medieval inquisition, inquisitors, heresy, unorthodoxy, courts
ecclesiastial, torture (judicial), death-penalty, ordeal, Roman law,
Franciscans, papacy, communes, urban government, medieval economy, banking,
exactions, University of Paris.
Alexander Murray, University College, UK-Oxford OX1 4BH
16991 words Peritia
5 (1986) 161-200 Galway and Cork ISSN 0332-1592
THE PHYSICAL WORLD IN SEVENTH-CENTURY HIBERNO-LATIN TEXTS
ABSTRACT. Exegesis, grammar and the date of Easter were not the only
intellectual concerns of seventh-century Irish scholars. Their works reveal a
surprising interest in the physical world for its own sake, not merely as
containing signs of higher religious truths. Their cosmological system was
remarkably consistent, though it must seem naive to the modern reader. A basic
assumption was that all matter was made up of some combination of the four
elements: fire, air, water, and earth. Particular doctrines were derived from
christian sources and from some measure of observation. There is no awareness of
the secular scientific tradition of late antiquity-not even indirectly through
the works of Isidore of Seville. This was just as well, since it gave these
Irish scholars the freedom to speculate independently-the essential condition
for all scientific advance.
KEYWORDS: Hiberno-Latin, intellectual history,
history of science, science (early medieval), science (Irish), scholarship,
cosmology, hexameron, astronomy, tides, patristics, Augustine, Isidore of
Marina Smyth, Medieval Institute, University of Notre Dame Notre Dame,
15018 words Peritia 5 (1986) 201-34 Cork and Galway
WHEN IS DONATUS NOT DONATUS? VERSIONS, VARIANTS AND NEW TEXTS
ABSTRACT. Distinguishing interpolated versions of
Donatus's Ars minor from seventh- and eighth- century grammars based on
it is a problem which occasionally obscures aspects of the history of the
transmission of the
Ars minor as recently traced by Louis Holtz. Crucial for the distinction
is the qualitative difference between simple interpolations and the expansions
which characterise an independent work: deliberate alterations to wording and
structure and the addition of material from other sources. Alterations of this
kind identify Holtz's X' (St Gall 877, 290-354) as a copy of the Ars
Ambianensis and his C' (Toledo, Biblioteca del Cabildo 99-30, f 33v-34v) as
a new grammar, the Ars Toletanensis. The ultimate Spanish origin of the
`version irlandaise mixte' of the Ars minor cannot be maintained; and
the evidence for this version is shown to be limited to two indirect witnesses,
the Ars Asporii and the Ars Ambianensis. General principles
applicable to other medieval grammatical texts are set out.
KEYWORDS: medieval Latin, grammar, history of grammar, Donatus, Holtz, Ars
Ambianensis, Ars Toletanensis
Vivien Law, Sidney Sussex College, UK-Cambridge CB2 3HU
Peritia 5 (1986) 235-61 Cork and Galway ISSN 0332-1592
A SHORT LATIN GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS WRITTEN IN IRELAND
DAVID J.G. LEWIS
ABSTRACT. This paper presents an edition of the abridged apocryhal Gospel
of Nicodemus (together with some notes and commentary) from the sole
surviving manuscript, London, British Library, Royal 13.A.14, written in Ireland
about AD 1300. The second part of the Gospel of Nicodemus (known as the
`Descensus ad Infernos') was known in the British Isles, probably as a separate
text, in the early middle ages: this is clear in the case of Ireland from the
Book of Cerne (8th-9th century) and in the case of England from Cynewulf (c. AD
800). In both countries vernacular versions are very considerably later. The
first part of the Gospel (known as `Acta Pilati') was probably joined to
it during the ninth century and on the continent. There are about 50 extant
manuscript copies of the Gospel in British libraries, most of which
contain a more or less full recension though some are abbreviated to some
extent. The unique text here edited is severely abridged but nonetheless
readable. There are some minor additions to the text.
medieval, Irish, Middle English, textual history, scripture, apocrypha,
Harrowing of Hell, Nicodemus, Joseph of Arimathia.
David J.G. Lewis, Institut für Englische Philologie, Freie Universität
Berlin, Gosslerstr. 2-4, D-1000 Berlin 33.
5685 words Peritia 5 (1986)
276-83 Galway and Cork ISSN 0332-1592
NEW LIGHT ON PALLADIUS
DÁIBHI Ó CRÓINÍN
Palladius, the earliest dateable figure in the history of the Irish church, has
been generally treated as a `lost' character, and almost all trace of the
`Palladian' church is believed to have disappeared. This paper argues that one
text intimately associated with Palladius, his Easter table, has in fact
survived and was know to Hiberno-Latin writers in the seventh century. The
principles of that table are here reconstructed and its importance for the
history of early Irish contacts with the continent demonstrated.
KEYWORDS: Alexandria, Ambrose, Augustine, British church, Bury (J. B.),
christianity, Columbanus, computistical texts, Cummian, cycles, Dionysius
Exiguus, Easter, Gallic church, Gaudentius, Hilarianus (Q. I.), Jones (C. W.),
Isidore, Milan, Palladius,
papa, Patrick, Prosper, supputatio romana, Theophilus, Virgilius
Dáibhí Ó Cróinín, School of History,
University College, Galway
3502 words Peritia 5 (1986) 276-83 Cork and
Galway ISSN 0332-1592
THE ECHTERNACH GOSPELS' EVANGELIST-SYMBOL PAGES: FORMS FROM `THE TWO
TRUE MEASURES OF GEOMETRY'
ROBERT D. STEVICK
ABSTRACT. Each of the rectilinear frames enclosing the evangelist symbols in
the Echternach Gospels (Paris, Bibliotheque nationale, MS lat. 9389) can be
reconstructed easily, accurately and completely from a single dimension-its
width-by using only the draughtsman's straight-edge and dividers. In the
derivational process for these designs can be recognized intellectually the
commodulation that otherwise can be only partially intuited. The methods of
construction represent a geometrical inventiveness and depth of understanding of
proportion that is paradigmatic for the finest art of early Insular framed
crosses and evangelist symbols.
KEYWORDS: Insular art, Hiberno-Saxon
manuscripts, Durham Gospels, Echternach Gospels, Lindisfarne Gospels, book-art,
golden section ratio, commodular design.
Robert D. Stevick, Department of English GN-30, University of Washington,
Seattle, US-Washington 98195.
8619 words; 10 figures; 5 plates Peritia
5 (1986) 284-308 Cork and Galway ISSN 0332-1592
SOME NEGLECTED VIKING-AGE SILVER HOARDS FROM NEAR ATHLONE AND CO
J.A. GRAHAM-CAMPBELL and C.S. BRIGGS
ABSTRACT. Nineteenth-century drawings preserved in Liverpool and Dublin,
with notes and letters, as well as the annotated sale catalogues of the
collections formed by Thomas Bateman, Thomas Crofton Croker and the Rev Dr
Neligan, have enabled the authors to discover and reprovenance material
belonging to four Viking-age silver hoards from Ireland. The most important of
these consists of four or five Hiberno-Viking arm-rings from near Athlone (one
of a growing number of such findspots from along the Shannon). The others,
comprising assorted plain rings, were found in the 1840s in Co Cork, at Lohort
Castle, Kilbarry (Killeens), and Macroom Castle.
KEYWORDS:Ireland, Viking, silver hoards, rings, antiquarian collections,
Athlone, Shannon, Co Cork.
J.A. Graham-Campbell, Department of History, University College London,
Gower St, London WC1E 6BT.
C.S. Briggs, Royal Commission on Ancient and
Historical Monuments in Wales, Edleston House, Queen's Road, Aberystwyth, Dyfed
3141 words; 6 figures Peritia 5 (1986) 309-16 Cork and
Galway ISSN 0332-1592
THE SLAVE TRADE OF DUBLIN, NINTH TO TWELFTH CENTURIES
ABSTRACT. From the ninth century, the taking of slaves was an integral part
of Viking warfare. Though never the prime motive for raiding, it was a means of
indicating defiance and was followed up by the extraction of ransom and tribute.
Slave-trading with Scandinavia and Iceland developed slowly. In the eleventh
century, when the Irish internal struggle for overkingship escalated, the taking
of slaves became a widespread phenomenon. Warring Irish kings sold prisoners of
war in the Dublin slave-market and Dublin experienced a growing slave-trade with
western Europe. In the second half of the eleventh century, there seems to have
developed a specific Irish-Sea slave-market, but in the twelfth century Norman
legislation against the slave-trade seems to have been effective and Dublin's
control of the Irish Sea was broken.
KEYWORDS: History, medieval,
Ireland, Dublin, Vikings, kingship, slavery, warfare, raiding, trade.
Poul Holm, Keeper, Fiskeri- og Søfartsmuseet, Esbjerg V, DK-6710
12458 words Peritia 5 (1986) 317-45 Cork and Galway ISSN
MEDIEVAL YOUGHAL: THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN IRISH SEAPORT TRADING TOWN, c.
1200 TO c. 1500
ABSTRACT. Though a proto-town may
have existed before the Anglo-French invasion, Youghal's development as a town
was in the early thirteenth century as a centre of settlement by Maurice
Fitzgerald II-the principal borough of the manor of Inchiquin. Though it had
borough status and was a centre of trade, little is known of it before the end
of the thirteenth century when it was an important urban centre, commercially
and strategically, and a very important component of the manor of
Inchiquin-almost 61% of the manor's revenue. Though there may have been earlier
charters, the earliest surviving text of a charter of liberties (as distinct
from more limited grants) is dated 1431 (confirmed 1462, 1485, 1496). It
contracted in the later fourteenth century because of demographic decline (the
impact of the Black Death) and the turbulence and instability generated by the
Gaelic recovery. This in turn led to the rise of the great Anglo-Irish
territorial magnates. By the late fifteenth century, the manor of Inchiquin
including Youghal had fallen into the hands of the earls of Desmond, who
promoted its trade and concessions from the crown and milked its revenues. This
development was helped by a clear government policy of buttressing the
port-towns as centres of `English' influence in Ireland, and, in favourable
economic circumstances Youghal recovered in the later fifteenth century.
Ireland, medieval history, urban, urban charters, lordship, settlement, manor,
trade, Munster, Youghal, Inchiquin.
A.F. O'Brien, Department of Medieval History, University College, Cork.
16169 words Peritia 5 (1986) 346-78 Cork and Galway ISSN 0332-1592
NOMADRY IN MEDIEVAL IRELAND: THE ORIGINS OF THE CREAGHT OR
ABSTRACT. The Irish word caoraigheacht,
Hiberno-English `creaght', signified a herd of miscellaneous livestock with its
attendants, grazing or passing through other people's lands, with or without the
landowner's permission. The term has not been noted as occurring earlier than
the late fourteenth century, and from this period onwards the leaders of such
herds could be members of either the Irish or the Anglo-Irish aristocracy. A
creaght could be formed by the settled population of a district temporarily
displaced in time of war, moving as a train of refugees, or aggressive migrants,
under the leadership of their own chief. There were also certain classes within
society- landless nobles, wandering poets or mercenary soldiers-who were
accustomed to migrate from one landlord to another, with their band of followers
and livestock. It is suggested that an increase in this class of landless
noblemen and the warfare associated with the Tudor reconquest combined with an
existing pattern of transhumance to bring about the situation in 1610 where
society in mid-Ulster was perceived as being organised in creaghts or `herds'
rather than into villages.
KEYWORDS: society (late medieval),
aristocracy, pastoralism, nomadry, migration, transhumance, booleying, trespass,
Irish law, creaght,
Katharine Simms, Department of Medieval History, 3143 Arts Building, Trinity
College, IE-Dublin 2
6178 words Peritia 5 (1986) 379-91 Cork and
Galway ISSN O332-1592
Return to Table of Contents
Peritia: Volume 6-7 (1987-88)
THE RUTHWELL CRUCIFIXION POEM IN ITS ICONOGRAPHIC AND LITURGICAL
ÉAMONN Ó CARRAGÁIN
ABSTRACT: The Northumbrian vernacular crucifixion poem is integrated with
the iconographic programme on the eighth-century Ruthwell Cross. The first half
of the poem is related to the panels on the first broad side. These reflect
Roman lenten ceremonies for the catechumenate. The poem's stress on Christ's
divine will and human courage may reflect the rejection of monotheletism at the
synod of Hatfield (679). The second half of the poem is related to and completed
by the eucharistic iconography on the second broad side. It reflects the
emphasis on traditio in the catechumenate, the use of the kenotic
lection Phil. 2:5-11 on the sixth Sunday of Lent, and the Roman Good Friday
stational procession to Santa Croce in Gerusalemme. The cross is designed to be
read sunwise (OIr. dessel). The poem's incipit is reminiscent of
the prose collect for sext in the Antiphonary of Bangor.
KEYWORDS: Anglo-Saxon poetry, Antiphonary of Bangor, catechumenate, Christ,
Passion, Dream of the rood, eucharist, Good Friday, high cross,
iconography, epigraphy, kenotic christology, Lent, monotheletism, liturgy Roman,
Ruthwell cross, runes, sculpture, Northumbria
Éamonn Ó Carragáin, Department of English, University
College, Cork, Ireland
42987 words; 3 plates (at volume end)
Peritia 6-7 (1987-88) 1-71 Cork ISSN 0332-1592
EARLY MEDIEVAL TEXT AND IMAGE: THE WOUNDED AND EXALTED CHRIST
ABSTRACT. The relationship between early medieval texts and pictorial images
in terms of their shared exegetical techniques, function and liturgical
background, provides a large and important body of material for the historian of
early monastic culture. This paper examines some aspects of the process by which
the inheritance from the patristic period of exegetical chains of key scriptural
texts prompted continuing exposition and the formulation of images as pictorial
exegesis. Focusing on the particular example of an inscribed Anglo-Saxon ivory
and related Insular works, it studies the exegetical origins and the early
iconography of the image of the wounded Christ enthroned in glory. The theme
illustrates both the use made by exegetes and artists of the scriptural practice
of rendering physical sight as an image of spiritual insight and, by extension,
ways in which the actual reading of texts and images in order to discern their
spiritual meaning, hidden from the uninitiated, was itself regarded as a model
of the christian and, especially, the monastic vocation.
KEYWORDS: history of art, medieval iconography, Anglo-Saxon art, scripture,
exegesis, liturgy, eschatology, monastic culture.
Jennifer O'Reilly, Department of Medieval History, University College Cork
27344 words; 12 plates (at volume end)
Peritia 6-7 (1987-88) 72-118 Cork ISSN 0332-1592
WILLIAM RUFUS, HENRY I, AND THE ANGLO-NORMAN CHURCH (DENIS BETHELL
MEMORIAL LECTURE V)
C. WARREN HOLLISTER
ABSTRACT. Although some recent historians are inclined to re-evalute
traditional views of William Rufus and Henry I in Rufus's favour and to Henry's
detriment, the evidence clearly shows that Henry was a considerably better
friend to the church than his predecessor. Although both quarrelled with the
church through archbishop Anselm, these quarrels were of different in nature.
While Rufus attacked the dignities of Canterbury which Anselm sought to protect,
Henry only wished to defend royal prerogative against papal incursion. Their
contrasting attitudes toward cooperation with the church is demonstrated by
Henry's participation in church councils, following the practice of William the
Conqueror, whereas Rufus permitted no councils. Rufus's most blatant abuse of
the church was his policy of despoiling vacant bishoprics and abbeys. By the end
of his reign, 60% of the wealth of the richest churches in England was
controlled by the king. Under Henry I, however, such systematic exploitation of
the church ceased.
KEYWORDS: William Rufus, Henry I, church, Canterbury, regalian rights
C. Warren Hollister, Department of History, University of California, Santa
Barbara, CA 93106
Peritia 6-7 (1987-88) 119-40 Cork ISSN 0332-1592
ELOQUENTIAE EXUBERANTIA: WORDS AND FORMS IN ADOMNÁN'S
ABSTRACT. The study of the vocabulary and the morphology of the Vita
Columbae shows Adomnán's Latinity to be less glamorous than is generally
supposed. Adomnán's Latin cannot be said to be hisperic but the range of
vocabulary and the judicious choice of uncommon and archaic forms shows an
intimate knowledge of the language in all its diversity. Some inaccuracies and
vulgar features show that the writer had to work hard to produce a text which
is, on the whole, correct and stylish. The exuberance of eloquence which
characterises the Vita is explained by the apologetic nature of the
KEYWORDS: Adomnán, hagiography, Greek borrowings, Hiberno-Latin,
hisperic Latin, historical linguistics, medieval Latin, morphology, rhetoric,
Jean-Michel Picard, Department of French, University College, Dublin 4
9608 words; 1 plate (at volume end) Peritia 6-7 (1987-88) 141-57 Cork ISSN
SOME ASPECTS OF SEVENTH-CENTURY HIBERNO-LATIN SYNTAX: A STATISTICAL
A. P. MCD. ORCHARD
ABSTRACT. This paper is an attempt to identify, on a statistical basis, the
characteristic features of Hiberno-Latin with a view to finding a method of
distinguishing it from Anglo-Latin and continental Latin. Demonstratives,
prepositions, gerunds and gerundives have been analysed, and the statistical
results are set out in extensive tables. It has been shown that clear and
measurable differences exits between Hiberno-Latin and Latin from other sources
in the early medieval period.
KEYWORDS: analysis of language, Hiberno-Latin, history of language,
linguistics, philology, medieval Latin, statistical analysis, Aldhelm, Bede,
Columba, Columbanus, Gildas, Gregory of Tours, Pseudo-Cyprian, St Patrick,
Virgilius Maro Grammaticus.
A. P. McD. Orchard, Queen's College, Cambridge CB3 9ET, England
20984 words; 14 tables.
Peritia 6-7 (1987-88) 151-201 Cork ISSN 0332-1592
BANGOR AND THE HISPERICA FAMINA
ABSTRACT. This article seeks to question the starting-point for discussing
the Hisperica Famina given by the contents of Jenkinson's edition. The
author examines Jenkinson's collection and concludes that the `A', `B', `C' and
`D' texts of the Famina are authentically seventh-century Hiberno-Latin,
`Adelphus adelpha' and `Rubisca' are probably tenth-century and written on the
continent, while the Lorica is seventh-century but different in style.
The author seeks to add to the genuine hisperic corpus a collect from
the Antiphonary of Bangor, pointing out its links with the `B' text of the Famina
and the De excidio Britanniae of Gildas, noting also that the Lorica
is closely paralleled by an exorcism in the Antiphonary. The author consequently
ends by concluding that Bangor is likely to be a main centre (if not the
main centre) for this stylistic development.
KEYWORDS: Medieval Latin, Hiberno-Latin, Greek, Latin style, Hisperica
Famina, Lorica, Antiphonary of Bangor, Bangor, liturgy, collects,
exorcism, Isidore, Laidcenn, Columbanus
Jane Stevenson, Pembroke College, Cambridge CB1 1RF, England
Peritia 6-7 (1987-88) 202-16 Cork ISSN 0332-1592
THE ECHTERNACH AND MAC DURNAN GOSPELS: SOME COMMON READINGS AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE
MARTIN MCNAMARA MSC
ABSTRACT. Following on an introductory section on the Mac Durnan Gospels (London, Lambeth Palace Library, MS 1370, Armagh, saec. IX), this paper presents 100 peculiar readings of the Gospels of Echternach (Paris, BN lat. 9389), which are neither Vulgate nor of the Irish (`Celtic') family, but which agree with the Mac Durnan Gospel readings and in many instances also with two twelfth-century Armagh Gospels (London, BL Harley 1802, i.e. `Mael Brigte Gospels' and London, BL Harley 1023) and, in a number of instances, with the readings of the Book of Armagh. The evidence indicates the need for a fuller study of the Echternach Gospel text and points to an Armagh dimension in Irish gospel texts.
KEYWORDS: history of religion, scripture, Vulgate, gospel, Irish gospel texts, Echternach Gospels, Mac Durnan Gospels, Armagh
Martin McNamara, Milltown Institute of Theology and Philosophy, Dublin 4
Peritia 6-7 (1987-88) 217-22 Cork ISSN 0332-1592
UN EXEMPLE DE METAPHORA RECIPROCA DANS LE DE EXCIDIO
BRITANNIAE: GILDAS ET LE `DONAT CHRÉTIEN'
ABSTRACT. Au chapitre 16 de De excidio, Gildas emploie une metaphora
reciproca (`alis remorum'). L'exemple de Virgile, `remigium alarum', est
revelé par Isidore, Julien de Tolède et Isidore Junior, tous
auteurs postérieurs à Gildas. Mais Isidore Junior ne fait que
recopier un traité de la fin du Ve siècle, que Gildas a pu connaître.
KEYWORDS: Gildas, De excidio Britanniae, metaphora reciproca,
Donat, Isidore, Isidore Junior, Julien de Tolède, `Donat chrétien',
grammaires latines du haut moyen âge.
François Kerlouégan, Université de Franche-Comté,
Faculté des Lettres, 30 rue Mégevand, F-25030 Besançon
Peritia 6-7 (1987-88) 223-26 Cork ISSN 0332-1592
THE `LOST' IRISH 84-YEAR EASTER TABLE REDISCOVERED
DANIEL MC CARTHY and DÁIBHÍ Ó CRÓINÍN
ABSTRACT. The Paschal controversy in the British Isles centred on the use of
an 84-year Easter table, which was abandoned by Iona only in AD 716. Previous
discussions of the Irish table have been hampered by the fact that no manuscript
copy was known. This paper announces the discovery of such a manuscript (Padua,
Biblioteca Antoniana, MS I. 27) and offers, for the first time, an authentic
Irish Easter table for AD 438-521.
KEYWORDS. Anatolius, annals, British Easter, Columbanus, computus,
chronology, Easter, Gildas, Irish 84-year Easter table, Irish Paschal forgeries,
latercus, Munich Computus
Daniel Mc Carthy, Department of Computer Science, Trinity College, Dublin 2
Dáibhí Ó Cróinín, School of History,
University College, Galway
7129 words; 4 tables
Peritia 6-7 (1987-88) 227-42 Cork ISSN 0332-1592
HOLES AND FLAWS IN MEDIEVAL IRISH MANUSCRIPTS
ABSTRACT. Holes and other defects are common in the vellum used in the
production of Irish medieval manuscripts. Skin structure, the preparation and
kinds of parchment, disease, parasitology and environment has been looked at to
account for these faults. They have been attributed, wrongly, to the warble-fly
(Hypoderma spp) and appear to be due rather to processing error,
possible bacterial and viral disease, and defective nurture. Costs of parchment,
the size of herds needed to meet the demand, and the ages and sizes of beasts
used have been examined. Five major MSS (6th-16th centuries) have been
KEYWORDS: vellum, parchment, animal skins, skin structure, manuscript
production, herd vital statistics, animal pathology, palaeopathology, Irish
medieval manuscripts, Cathach, Lebor na hUidre, Leabhar Breac, Leabhar Mór
Leacáin, Book of Fermoy.
Kathleen Ryan, MASCA, The University Museum, University of Pennsylvania,
Philadelphia PA 19104, USA
9475 words; 6 figures; 1 table; 6 plates (at volume
Peritia 6-7 (1987-88) 243-64 Cork ISSN 0332-1592
STYLES USED IN TWELFTH CENTURY IRISH FIGURE SCULPTURE
ABSTRACT. Twelfth-century Irish figure sculpture has stylistic approaches
that distinguish it from Romanesque found abroad. The dominant traits,
classified in this paper, are traced to earlier Irish art: the twelfth-century
artists re-used earlier styles with little change or innovated within the same
stylistic ambit. This strong tradition continued for at least 400 years. Certain
foreign influences were imported (through circulating MSS and metal-work
objects) but Irish material that exhibits them is very scarce. In
twelfth-century Ireland, for the most part, there was a transformation of
traditional concerns into new hybrids. These conclusions must affect future
assessments of figurative art and of the flow of influences in the Insular
KEYWORDS: art history, sculpture, figurative art, gospel books, high
crosses, Irish art, Insular art, medieval art, manuscript illumination, cultural
Suzanne McNab, National College of Art and Design, 100 Thomas St, Dublin 8
15445 words; 5 figures; 15 plates (at volume end)
Peritia 6-7 (1987-88) 265-97 Cork ISSN 0332-1592
SAINT MARTIN OF BRAGA AND GERMANIC LANGUAGES: AN ADDENDUM TO RECENT
ABSTRACT. Supplementary to recent research, this paper considers the
possible role of Germanic in the mission of St Martin of Braga to the Sueves in
a broad socio-linguistic context. By the sixth century, the Suevic aristocracy,
like the Visigothic one, conducted its important business and its cultural life
in Latin. Evidently, Martin's contacts with kings Miro (570-83) and Theodomir
(559-70) were through Latin. Suevic became the domestic language of the lower
classes. If Suevic was a factor in christianisation, the burden of proof lies on
those who think so. Interpreters were used in the case of third languages.
KEYWORDS: Spain (early medieval), Sueves, Galicia, Martin of Braga, Germanic
Suevic, christianisation, latinisation, historical linguistics,
socio-linguistics, bilingualism, cultural history.
Alberto Ferreiro, Seattle Pacific University, Department of History,
Seattle, WA 98119
Peritia 6-7 (1987-88) 298-306 Cork ISSN 0332-1592
THE ARMAGH REGISTERS: AN UNDER-EXPLORED SOURCE FOR LATE MEDIEVAL
ABSTRACT. The Armagh register constitute the largest and most important
single source of original material still surviving in Ireland for its medieval
past. They have not been fully exploited by historians partly because only one
of them, that of archbishop May, has been published in full. Including among the
registers are records of proceedings in the ecclesiastical court and this
evidence, especially the depositions of witnesses in matrimonial and defamation
cases, demonstrate in a colourful and dramatic way the value of the material not
just for ecclesiastical historians but for scholars interested in any aspect of
life in late medieval Ireland. It is hoped that a demonstration of the richness
of these sources will encourage further publication of them.
KEYWORDS: Armagh, archbishop's court, bastardry, canon law, court
ecclesiastical, defamation, depositions, Drogheda, law, medieval church, Irish medieval church, Irish law, medieval institutions, marriage law, registers
Art Cosgrove, Department of Medieval History, University College, Dublin 4
7648 words Peritia 6-7 (1987-88) 307-320 Cork ISSN 0332-1592
Return to Table of Contents
Peritia: Volume 8 (1994)
THE EARLIEST IRISH WRITERS AT HOME AND ABROAD
D. R. HOWLETT
ABSTRACT. Analyses of compositions in verse and prose by early Irish writers
in Ireland and on the continent reveal assimilation of structural techniques
from Antiquity, the Latin bible and Boethius, which fix the ordering of diction.
One note credits Columban with comprehensive disposition of varied rhythms,
rhyme and alliteration in verse. The other credits Cummian with arrangement of
clausular patterns and the infixing of a dating device.
KEYWORDS: Irish Latin, Columban, Cummian, stylistics, rhyme, alliteration,
verse rhythms, clausulae, cursus rhythms.
D. R. Howlett, Dictionary of
Medieval Latin from British Sources, Bodleian Library, Oxford OX1 3BG
Peritia 8 (1994) 1-17 Turnhout: Brepols ISBN 2-503-50379-9
THE LATIN VERSION OF THE SCRIPTURES IN IONA IN THE LATE SEVENTH CENTURY: THE
EVIDENCE FROM ADOMNÁN'S DE LOCIS SANCTIS
ABSTRACT. For some time now the consensus has been that Adomnán was
drawing on several biblical texts, principally the Vulgate but also the Vetus
Latina, and perhaps he had some knowledge of the Septuagint. The argument of the
present paper is that his De locis sanctis provides no evidence for the presence
of either a text of the Vetus Latin or the Septuagint in the library of Iona in
the last quarter of the seventh century.
Thomas O'Loughlin, Milltown Institute of Theology and Philosophy, Milltown Park,
4042 words, 5 figures
Peritia 8 (1994) 18-26 Turnhout: Brepols ISBN 2-503-50379-9
THE MONSTER IN THE RIVER NESS IN VITA SANCTI COLUMBAE: A STUDY OF A
ABSTRACT. This paper gives an example of a historical-critical study of
Adomnán's Vita Sancti Columbae, ii 27, which reconstructs the
episode of the encounter with a monster as a natural, historical event. However,
the episode is presented as a miracle: - it therefore treats of the
extraordinary and supernatural. Hence a literary approach is also offered, one
which attempts to find the miracle's message by comparing it with its possible
KEYWORDS: Vita Columbae, Columba, Adomnán, Sulpicius Severus,
Ness, Picts, hagiography, thaumaturgy, missions, monsters, literary criticism
Jacqueline Borsje, Department of Theology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De
Boelelaan 1105, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam
3825 words Peritia 8 (1994) 27-34 Turnhout: Brepols ISBN 2 503 50379 9
IS THE FIRST COMMENTARY ON MARK AN IRISH WORK? SOME NEW CONSIDERATIONS
ABSTRACT. New arguments are advanced here for a re-consideration of
Bischoff's hypothesis about the Irish authorship of the Ps-Jerome `Commentarius
in Marcum'. The treatment of a number of topics - psalm exegesis, the
early church, Roman coinage, the cardinal points, the Jews - cannot be
described as characteristically Irish.
KEYWORDS: Biblical exegesis, Markan commentary, Psalms, Antiochene school,
Theodore of Mopsuestia, Julian of Eclanum, Romani, Jews, Old-Irish glosses.
Michael Cahill, Department of Theology, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA
Peritia 8 (1994) 35-45 Turnhout: Brepols ISBN 2 503 50379 9
THE CHRONOLOGICAL APPARATUS OF THE ANNALS OF ULSTER AD 431-1131
ABSTRACT. This paper demonstrates that the chronological framework of the
Annals of Ulster is a combination of two different systems: one based on January
AD dating (nativity era), the other based on March AD dating (incarnation era).
This discovery explains the discrepancies in the dates, and vindicates Ussher's
analysis of the dating criteria against Bartholomew Mac Carthy's later critique.
The introduction of March AD dating is pinpointed to the eleventh century, and
is related to contemporary political and ecclesiastical developments. The
original chronological apparatus is restored and some of the literary sources
are also identified. The date and place of compilation for the original are
identified as Iona, c.AD 740.
KEYWORDS: chronology, computistics, Irish annals, paschal cycles, Liber
Anatolii, Liber pontificalis, latercus, ferial, epact,
bissextile, anno domini, anno mundi, Victorius of Aquitaine, Dionysius Exiguus,
Bede, Mac Maghnusa, Ó Luinín.
Daniel McCarthy, Department of Computer Science, Trinity College, Dublin 2
18576 words; 3 tables
Peritia 8 (1994) 46-79 Turnhout: Brepols ISBN 2 503 50379 9
THE LINDISFARNE SCRIPTORIUM: FOR AND AGAINST
ABSTRACT. This paper addresses difficult and much-disputed questions
concerning the provenance, dating, and inter-relationships of the great Insular
gospels - Lindisfarne, Durham, Echternach, Durrow, Kells and others. It
rejects Brown's hypothesis about the Lindisfarne scriptorium, viz. that the
Lindisfarne, Durham and Echternach Gospels were written there, the latter two by
the scribe-artist called the `Durham-Echternach calligrapher'. The similarities
of Echternach and Durham are best explained by their common roots in Ireland,
and the development of Insular majuscule took place in Ireland, not Northumbria.
The critical importance of Rath Melsigi, its daughter house Echternach, and the
Echternach group of manuscripts is duly stressed.
KEYWORDS: calligraphy, palaeography, uncial, half-uncial, Insular majuscule,
Durham Gospels, Echternach Gospels, Turin Gospels, Codex Amiatinus, Book of
Durrow, Book of Kells, Gospels of MacDurnan, Lindisfarne, Wearmouth-Jarrow, Rath
Melsigi, `Durham-Echternach calligrapher'.
William O'Sullivan, `Harbourne', Torquay Road, Foxrock, Co Dublin
Peritia 8 (1994) 80-94 Turnhout: Brepols ISBN 2 503 50379 9
CENTRALISM AND UNIFORMITY VERSUS LOCALISM AND DIVERSITY: THE VIRGIN AND
NATIVE SAINTS IN THE MONASTIC REFORM
ABSTRACT. Recent work on the cult of the saints in the late Anglo-Saxon
church (Ridyard, Rollason, Clayton) seem to be at variance on the issue of the
importance of the cults of the Virgin and those of the native saints. This is an
attempt to read the cult of the Virgin against those of other saints, exploring
similarities and differences in the ways in which the cults developed and by
whom, and to demonstrate that the cult of Mary functioned as a symbol of
solidarity and corporate unity in the Benedictine reform period. This ideal did
not last long, however, and its breakdown is mirrored in a movement towards
KEYWORDS: cult of saints, Virgin Mary, royal saints, Benedictine reform,
monasticism, Regularis concordia, Anglo-Saxon iconography, liturgy,
relics, monastic dedications, Winchester, Canterbury.
Mary Clayton, Department of Old and Middle English, University College,
Peritia 8 (1994) 95-106 Turnhout: Brepols ISBN 2 503 50379 9
CONTRACT BETWEEN KING AND PEOPLE IN EARLY MEDIEVAL IRELAND?
CRÍTH GABLACH ON KINGSHIP
ABSTRACT. The early eighth-century Irish legal tract, Críth
Gablach (a text on status), ends with a discussion of kingship. It is
particularly interesting for its perception of the relationship between a king
and his people as a contract. It is argued that the background to this view is
to be found within Ireland, especially in the relationship between client kings
and their overlords and between the church and the laity. Críth
Gablach's account of kingship also includes a section on the proper
arrangement of the king's household. Some elements of this section are clearly
artificial, but they can be explained in terms of a desire on the part of the
author to include a christian interpretation of kingship.
KEYWORDS: early medieval kingship, early Irish law, political theory,
contractual theories of political authority.
T.M. Charles-Edwards, Corpus Christi College, Oxford OX1 4JF
Peritia 8 (1994) 107-19 Turnhout: Brepols ISBN 2 503 50379 9
AIMIRGEIN GLÚNGEL TUIR TEND: A MIDDLE-IRISH POEM ON THE
AUTHORS AND LAWS OF IRELAND
ABSTRACT. This paper presents a critical edition (with introduction,
translation, commentary, and linguistic analysis) of the Middle-Irish poem
`Aimirgein Glúngel tuir tend', attributed to Gilla in Choimded Úa
Cormaic of Tulach Léis, and dated c.1050-1150 on linguistic and
KEYWORDS: history, medieval Irish poetry, historical poetry, law, Irish
lawyers, Irish authors, Gilla in Choimded Úa Cormaic.
Peter Smith, Jesus College, Oxford OX1 3DW
Peritia 8 (1994) 120-50 Turnhout: Brepols ISBN 2 53 050379 9
BETWEEN APATHY AND ANTIPATHY: THE VIKINGS IN IRISH AND SCANDINAVIAN
ABSTRACT. This paper traces the varying phases and fortunes of the
historiography of the Vikings in Ireland and the history of Viking
antiquarianism from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries to the present day.
It treats of the different methodologies used and of the influence of politics,
especially nationalism, on history writing.
KEYWORDS: historiography, Ireland, Vikings, history of archaeology, Worsaae,
Petrie, Todd, Steenstrup, Mac Neill, Binchy, Irish annals, Cogadh Gaedhel re
Gallaib, battle of Clontarf
Poul Holm, Fiskeri- og Søfartsmuset, Tarphagevej, DK-6710 Esbjerg V,
Peritia 8 (1994) 151-69 Turnhout: Brepols ISBN 2 503 50379 9
KILLALOE: A PRE-NORMAN BOROUGH?
ABSTRACT. Post-Norman records indicate that Killaloe was an early borough.
It probably pre-dated the Normans. Here the early history of the related and
adjacent sites, Killaloe (Cell Dá Lua) and Kincora (Ceann Coradh), is
traced. The one was a monastic site and later cathedral, the other a royal
centre of the Uí Briain kings of Ireland - a unique combination
outside the Scandinavian towns of Ireland. This settlement had urban functions,
was a centre of royal and episcopal administration, and had a
KEYWORDS: borough, settlement, royal fortress, urbanisation,
Hiberno-Scandinavians, Killaloe, Ceann Coradh, Muirchertach Ua Briain
John Bradley, Urban Archaeology Survey, 86 St Stephen's Green, Dublin 2
Peritia 8 (1994) 170-79 Turnhout: Brepols ISBN 2-503-50379-9
GOLIARDIC RHYTHM: WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE PLAY OF DANIEL, THE DUBLIN
SEPULCHRE DRAMA, AND THE CARMINA BURANA
ABSTRACT. The musical dimension of the medieval lyric is important,
especially in regard to accent, rhythm, and metre. A distinctive trait can be
traced in the lyrics of the goliards, whose influence extended to the liturgical
drama, carols, and many other genres besides those with which they are commonly
KEYWORDS: medieval music, medieval drama, prosody, rhythm, goliards, Abélard,
David Wulstan, University of Wales, Aberystwyth SY23 AX1,
15401 words; 20 musical examples
Peritia 8 (1994) 180-215 Turnhout: Brepols ISBN 2-503-50379-9
Return to Table of Contents
Peritia: Volume 9 (1995)
FIVE EXPERIMENTS IN TEXTUAL RECONSTRUCTION AND ANALYSIS
ABSTRACT. This is an edition and detailed analysis of six complex early
Celtic-Latin texts - a note on the Irish reception of the computus, a
part of Cummian's Paschal letter, the incipit of the Egloga and
the whole text of the Lorica of Laidcenn mac Baíth, Cú
Chuimne's hymn Cantemus in omni die, and the learned poem Adelphus
adelpha mater. The analysis draws attention to their elaborate and intricate
structure and the metrical and linguistic skills of their authors. It further
demonstrates that their Latin represents correct Classical and Late Latin usage.
KEYWORDS: Medieval Latin, Irish Latin, early medieval poetry, hymnology,
metrics, rhythmic prose, stylistics, Greek, Hebrew, Mo Chuoróc, Cummian,
Laidcenn (mac Baíth), Cú Chuimne, Israel Grammaticus.
David Howlett, Dictionary of Medieval Latin from British Sources, Bodleian
Library, Oxford OX1 3BG. email@example.com
Peritia 9 (1995) 1-50 Turnhout: Brepols ISBN 2-503-50468-X
VIRGIL THE GRAMMARIAN: A SPANISH JEW IN IRELAND?
ABSTRACT. This is a detailed critique of two closely-linked theories on the
origins and linguistic background of Virgilius the Grammarian. Bischoff, in a
recent essay, expands on his earlier idea that Virgil was of Jewish origin, came
from Spain or Septimania, and sojourned in Ireland. He argued that Virgil grew
up in Hebrew and was acquainted with cabalistic techniques. Moreover, the
infuences of Vulgar Latin in his work point to a Continental rather than Irish
origin. In developing this last point, Bischoff builds on arguments advanced by
Bengt Löfstedt in a series of papers written in the early 1980s
KEYWORDS: Virgil the Grammarian (Virgilius Maro Grammaticus), Hebrew
language, cabbala, Hiberno-Latin, Vulgar Latin, Ars Sergilii, Spain, Septimania,
Ireland, medieval studies, medieval languages.
Michael Herren, 704 Atkinson College, York University, 4700 Keele Street,
North York, Ontario M3J 1P3
Peritia 9 (1995) 51-71 Turnhout: Brepols ISBN 2-503-50468-X
INSULAR LATIN IDAMA, IDUMA
ABSTRACT. This paper treats of the origin and use of Insular Latin idama,
iduma `hand'. It occurs in Altus Prosator, a poem composed probably
about the middle of the seventh century. The central word of a central line of
its central stanza, spelled idama in all four of the oldest extant
manuscripts, from the ninth and tenth centuries, correctly represents the vowel
a, of yadaim, the dual form of yad `hand'. As
open-topped a is easily confused with u in Insular minuscule
script, the word is spelled iduma in three eleventh-century manuscripts,
one of which glosses it correctly as manus and derives it correctly from
Hebrew. In the form iduma it appears in Laidcenn's Lorica and in
the Hisperica Famina, in which it is also glossed correctly. It is used
in English charters of the tenth and (possibly) eleventh centuries in the same
sense as in Altus Prosator.
KEYWORDS: Insular Latin, Hebrew, Greek, Altus Prosator, Hisperica
Famina, Laidcend, Aldhelm, Anglo-Saxon charters, idama, iduma.
David Howlett, Dictionary of Medieval Latin from British Sources, Bodleian
Library, Oxford OX1 3BG. firstname.lastname@example.org
Peritia 9 (1995) 72-80 Turnhout: Brepols ISBN 2-503-50468-X
THE POLYPHONIC COLOPHON TO CORMAC'S PSALTER
ABSTRACT. This essay considers Cormac's verses first as a composition in a
Celtic Latin tradition seven hundred years long, second as a learned composition
in three-part polyphonic music, of which it is an early, if not the earliest,
extant example, third as part of an ancient tradition of music-making among
Insular Celtic peoples.
KEYWORDS: Insular Latin, psalter, medieval music, polyphony, Cormac,
Giraldus Cambrensis, Sarum rite.
David Howlett, Dictionary of Medieval Latin from British Sources, Bodleian
Library, Oxford OX1 3BG. email@example.com
3768 words; 2 figures
Peritia 9 (1995) 81-91 Turnhout: Brepols ISBN 2-503-50468-X.
AFFILIATION OF CHILDREN: IMMATHCHOR nAILELLA & AIRT
This is an edition and translation of an Old-Irish legal text, dating
probably from c.700, and describing a lawsuit on the assignment of twins, after
their mother Sadb had been repudiated by their father Ailill Aulomm. A decision
is reached on the basis of principles governing marriage and an ordeal is
avoided. The legal proceedings are represented as being conducted in a highly
artistic style, commonly called rosc or retoiric in Irish
studies, and deriving from late antique and medieval rhetoric.
KEYWORDS: Old Irish, medieval literature, literary registers, rhetoric,
metrics, legal proceedings, marriage law, ordeals, political aetiology
Johan Corthals, Universität Hamburg, Bogenallee 11, D-20144 Hamburg.
16631 words Peritia 9 (1995) 92-124
Turnhout: Brepols ISBN 2-503-50468-X.
THE STATUS OF THE SCULPTOR IN OLD-IRISH LAW AND THE EVIDENCE OF THE
DOUGLAS MAC LEAN
ABSTRACT.The high legal and social status of the craftman and the
relationship between a master craftsman and his dependents and apprentices are
set out in the eighth-century legal tracts (especially Uraicecht becc)
and in the later commenaries. The texts also deal with hierarchies amongst
craftsmen, their various skills as builders in wood and stone, and their
payment. The carpenters of the older texts become the stone-masons of the
later, and this indicates a transition from wood to stone as the principal
material of construction, the artifactual evidence for which is studied. The
makers of the high-crosses at Kinnitty, Clonmacnois, Iona and elsewhere are
considered in the context of the law tracts.
KEYWORDS: craftsmen, legal status, hierarchy, Uraicecht becc, high
crosses, Kinnitty, Clonmacnois, Kells, Iona, Scottish crosses.
Douglas Mac Lean, 14 Campus Circle, Lake Forest, IL 60045, USA
Peritia 9 (1995) 125-55 Turnhout: Brepols ISBN 2-503-50468-X.
IRISH LAW: SIGNIFICANT NUMBERS AND THE LAW OF STATUS
ABSTRACT. Early Irish law texts appear frequently to draw upon a particular
numerical series. The numbers in this series are 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 30. In status
texts this series is supplemented by the numbers 2, 20, 42. A method for
generating these numbes is suggested. This method also provides a solution to
anomalies in the ordering of grades in some texts.
KEYWORDS: Early Irish law, numerical series, honour prices, secular status,
Neil McLeod, School of Law, Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia
4062 words Peritia 9 (1995) 156-66
Turnhout: Brepols ISBN 2-503-50468-X.
IMMORTALITY AND CAPITAL PUNISHMENT: PATRISTIC CONCEPTS IN IRISH LAW
ABSTRACT: An early legal poem is the centre-piece in the pseudo-historical
introduction to the Senchas Már. It is the work of a cleric and
is described as a skilful justification of capital punishment in a christian
context. The poet uses the complex theology of the Fall and Redemption in a
creative way and his work can only be interpreted in the context of
Hiberno-Latin and patristic literature. The poem is not symptomatic of christian
influence on the Laws in a merely unfocused sense. Rather it is the product of
the same ecclesiastical milieux that produced Hiberno-Latin literature itself.
KEYWORDS: Law, medieval law, immortality, Bible, theology, redemption, the
Fall, capital punishment, patristics, biblical commenary, biblical exegesis
Damian Bracken, Department of History, University College, Cork. firstname.lastname@example.org
9735 words Peritia 9 (1995) 167-86 Turnhout: Brepols ISBN
LATIN PASSAGES IN IRISH VERNACULAR LAW: NOTES ON SOURCES
ABSTRACT: Latin sentences and phrases are found in the early Irish
vernacular Laws (ranging from Old-Irish commentaries to later gloss and
commentary). Some sentences have parallels in the Hibernensis, itself
related to earlier Hiberno-Latin florilegia. At times, the evidence suggests
that the vernacular legists are drawing directly on Hiberno-Latin literature
rather than the Hibernensis. These and other collections of aphorisms
were, therefore, important for the early Irish canonists and of continued
interest to the legists who wrote the vernacular Laws and comentaries.
KEYWORDS: Law, Irish vernacular law, florilegium, Hibernensis,
Hiberno-Latin, Bible, biblical exegesis, Sedulius Scottus
Damian Bracken, Department of History, University College, Cork.
4526 words Peritia 9 (1995) 187-96
Turnhout: Brepols ISBN 2-503-50468-X.
TRANSFORMING WOMEN IN IRISH HAGIOGRAPHY
ABSTRACT. The transformation of women is a common motif in early Irish
literature. Three aspects will be dealt with, using mainly hagiographical
sources. Initially there will be an exploration of the image of the sovereignty
goddess. This will be followed by a discussion of the notion of a woman
possessing a masculine soul, and finally, of the evidence for the transvestite
saint. It will be argued that these represent aspects of the Irish church's
KEYWORDS: transformation, hagiography, saga, Eithne Úathach, Finbarr,
prophecy, temptress, masculine soul, transvestites, warriors.
Elva Johnston, Christ Church, Oxford OX1 1DP
10901 words Peritia 9
(1995) 197-220 Turnhout: Brepols ISBN 2-503-50468-X.
IRON WORKING FROM SOME EARLY MEDIEVAL IRISH SITES
MARK E. HALL
ABSTRACT. This is a metallographic study of some ferrous tools and weapons
from three Irish sites (Gransha, Killerdadrum, and Moyne). While steel was used
in most of the artifacts, not all steel was fully hardened and heat-treated.
This variability in the quality of the cutting edges is also seen in Anglo-Saxon
tools and weapons.
KEYWORDS: iron-working, ferrite, forge welding, pearlite, martensite,
manufacturing style, technological style.
Mark E. Hall, Archaeological Research Facility, Kroeber Hall, University of
California, Berkeley CA 94720
3143 words; 7 figures Peritia 9 (1995)
221-33 Turnhout: Brepols ISBN 2-503-50468-X.
THE MISERABLE BEASTS - ANIMAL ART IN THE GOSPELS OF LINDISFARNE,
LICHFIELD AND ST GALLEN 51
ABSTRACT. This paper studies the animal art in the three gospel books - Lindisfarne,
Lichfield and St Gallen 51 - and draws the conclusions that three
different artists produced the animal art in the Lichfield Gospels and that, as
far as animal art goes, there are marked similarities between Lichfield,
Lindisfarne and St Gallen 51.
KEYWORDS: Lindisfarne Gospels, Lichfield Gospels, St Gallen 51, gospel
books, Insular art, animal art, statistical analysis, typology.
Susanne Marx, Endenicher Allee 27, D-53121 Bonn, Germany
2933 words; 8
figures Peritia 9 (1995) 234-45 Turnhout: Brepols ISBN 2-503-50468-X.
THE WIRKSWORTH SLAB: AN ICONOGRAPHY OF HUMILITAS
ABSTRACT. Iconographic studies of the Anglo-Saxon carving at Wirksworth,
Derbyshire, have provided widely differing dates and interpretations. The
identity and possible sources of the scenes are here re-examined, along with any
implications this exercise may have for dating the piece. Consequent to this,
the possible significance(s) of the scenes which could have influenced their
selection and arrangement on the stone are discussed, demonstrating the
potential for a female audience at Wirksworth.
KEYWORDS: Anglo-Saxon, art, sculpture, christian culture, ecclesiology,
exegesis, iconography, liturgy, monasticism
Jane Hawkes, Dept English Literary and Linguistic Studies, University of
Newcastle, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, NE1 7RU
14439 words; 12 figures Peritia
9 (1994) 246-89 Turnhout: Brepols ISBN 2-503-50468-X.
THE HIBERNO-LATIN TRADITION OF THE EVANGELISTS AND THE GOSPELS OF MAEL
ABSTRACT. The paper draws attention to a short exegetical text on the four
evangelists inserted in the twelfth-century gospels of Mael Brigte (London,
British Library, Harley 1802) and its close parallels with Hiberno-Latin
compilations of the eighth century. The text's position within the exegetical
tradition and its apparently arbitrary position within the manuscript are
discussed. Harley's preservation not only of earlier exegesis but of many
features characteristic of early Insular gospel-books offers evidence of Irish
monastic cultural traditions which were still alive and understood in the
decades before the Norman invasion.
KEYWORDS: Hiberno-Latin exegesis, the Irish Reference Bible, Insular
iconography, evangelist symbols, biblical text.
Jennifer O'Reilly, Department of History, University College, Cork
6486 words; 3 plates Peritia 9 (1995) 290-309 Turnhout: Brepols ISBN
THE VIKINGS AND THE KINGSHIP OF TARA
ABSTRACT. The influence of the Vikings on political developments in Ireland
from c.850 to 980 was considerable, and they contributed significantly to the
decline of the Uí Néill as the paramount dynasty. On several
occasions they served as mercenaries or allies of Irish kings who resisted the
power of the king of Tara, and they were responsible for the killing of Niall Glúndub
(919), one of the most powerful kings of Tara, his son Muirchertach when
he was about to succeed as king of Tara in 943, Ruaidri ua Canannáin in
like circumstances in 950, and Conglach Cnogba, the king of Tara from Brega, in
956. The unrest and rivalry this caused among the Uí Néill made
them lose their grip on political affairs and allowed the emergence of a new
political order marked by the rise of new dynasties such as Uí Briúin
Bréifne and Dál Cais. From c.950 onwards the Dublin Vikings were a
dominant political force in the east, and were confined to a secondary role only
after their defeat in 980, although their killing of Brian Bóroime in
1014 underlines once more their role as catalysts in Irish politics.
KEYWORDS: medieval political history, kingship, Vikings, Viking raiding,
medieval warfare, Ireland, Uí Néill, Dublin.
Bart Jaski, Larikslaan 5, NL-7875 AV Exloo, Netherlands
Peritia 9 (1995) 310-53 Turnhout: Brepols ISBN 2-503-50468-X.
COGAD GÁEDEL RE GALLAIB: SOME DATING CONSIDERATIONS
MÁIRE NÍ MHAONAIGH
ABSTRACT. Cogad Gáedel re Gallaib is now generally regarded
as a skilful piece of political propaganda written at the behest of a direct
descendant of Brian Bórama. By highlighting such indicators regarding
date as exist in the text itself and by examining in particular apparent
references to Muirchertach Ua Briain (d.1119) contained in the text, it is
shown that Cogad was most likely composed between the years 1103 and
KEYWORDS: medieval history, Vikings, text history, twelfth-century writing,
stylistics, Middle Irish, Cogad Gáedel re Gallaib, Armagh, Mide,
Cork, Brian Bórama, Muirchertach Ua Briain.
Máire Ní Mhaonaigh, St John's College, Cambridge CB2 1TP
11044 words Peritia 9 (1995) 354-77
Turnhout: Brepols ISBN 2-503-50468-X.
OSTMEN, IRISH AND WELSH IN THE ELEVENTH CENTURY
ABSTRACT. Recent work on Hiberno-Welsh relations in the eleventh century
asserts that contacts between the countries rarely amounted to more than raids
by Irish-based Vikings, and that these raids followed a pattern, often taken
place after defeats inflicted on the Ostmen in Ireland. It is argued that this
interpretation is flawed, that relations between Ireland and Wales were more
complex, that both Ostmen and Irish kings had close political links with Wales,
and that the text Historia Gruffud vab Kenan is a useful primary source
for the subject.
KEYWORDS: Vikings, Ostmen, Ireland, Dublin, Wales, Gwynedd, Irish annals,
Brutiau, Brian Bóruma, Sitriuc Silkenbeard, Muirchertach Ua
Briain, Gruffudd ap Cynan, Historia Gruffud vab Kenan
Seán Duffy, Department of Medieval History, Trinity College, Dublin 2
9495 words Peritia 9 (1995) 378-96 Turnhout: Brepols ISBN
Peritia:Volume 10 (1996)
SEVEN STUDIES IN SEVENTH-CENTURY TEXTS
ABSTRACT. The following works are examined here: Versus de annis
a principio; Ailerán's Interpretatio mystica and
Canon euangeliorum; three verse prayers from the Book of
Cerne; seven works by and for Cummianus Longus (ob. 662),
including Celebra Iuda, which is here edited; three works by
Virgilius Maro Grammaticus; the Oratio Gildae and a verse
paraphrase of Carmen paschale, taken as examples of
Hiberno-Latin hendecasyllables; and the Lorica of Laidcenn mac
Baíth (ob. 661), for which a date of AD 659 is suggested. On
the basis of these texts, two inferences may be made of Irish culture
of the period: the intellectual agility and acuity exhibited in this
precisely constructed prose and verse was not the achievement of a few
isolated clerics; and the title sapiens was not given lightly
or loosely by the monastic annalists.
KEYWORDS: medieval Latin, Insular Latin, metrics, Book of Cerne,
Interpretatio mystica, Canon euangeliorum, Celebra Iuda, Epitomae,
Altus Prosator, sapiens, Ailerán, Cummian, Virgilius
Maro Grammaticus, Laidcenn mac Baíth, infixed dating devices,
computistic verse, Hebrew, Greek.
David Howlett, Dictionary of Medieval Latin from British Sources, Bodleian Library, Oxford OX1 3BG
47,142 words. Peritia 10 (1996) 1-70. Turnhout:Brepols. ISBN 2-503-50574-0
RUBISCA: AN EDITION, TRANSLATION, AND COMMENTARY
ABSTRACT. From indications of original internal orthography in two MSS
from Saint Augustine's in Canterbury the editor attempts to restore
the authorial text of Rubisca, a brilliant and light-hearted
poem in a rare metre, signed by its author, identified here as
Brían mac Con Catha, an Irish monk with some knowledge of
Hebrew and Greek. Quotations from and allusions to earlier
Hiberno-Latin and Anglo-Latin texts suggest composition after the
beginning of the ninth century. Diction from this text in an
Anglo-Latin and Old English glossary and a charter dated 16 April 928
suggest that the poem, if not the poet, like bishop Dub Innse of
Bangor and Israel the Grammarian, may have been known at the court of
KEYWORDS: rhythmic double adonic metre, Æthelstan's charter,
alphabetic verse, editorial principles, Greek, Hebrew, Hiberno-Latin,
Harley Glossary, Brianus Molosi Belli, Brían mac Con Catha.
David Howlett, Dictionary of Medieval Latin from British Sources,
Bodleian Library, Oxford OX1 3BG email@example.com
7144 WORDS, Peritia 10 (1996) 71-90. Turnhout:Brepols. ISBN
VENANTIUS FORTUNATUS, IRELAND, JEROME: THE EVIDENCE OF PRECAMUR
ABSTRACT. The Irish hymn Precamur patrem does not draw on hymns
of Venantius Fortunatus; rather parallels in Precamur patrem
and Fortunatus's hymns occur because both draw on Jerome's
letters. This strengthens the case for Columbanus's authorship of the
hymn while demolishing the evidence for the transmission of
Fortunatus's hymns from Poitiers to early medieval Ireland.
KEYWORDS: Columbanus, Precamur patrem, Venantius Fortunatus,
Jerome, Ireland, hymns, Irish-Gaulish links.
Clare Stancliffe, St Oswald's Vicarage, Church St, Durham DH1
2807 words. Peritia 10 (1996) 91-97. Turnhout:Brepols. ISBN
THE VIEW FROM IONA: ADOMNÁN'S MENTAL MAPS
ABSTRACT. Adomnán wrote a geographical work. How did he view
the world around which he imagined people travelling. This raises
questions about the state of contemporary geographical knowledge and
whether we can assume that he shares our notions of time and space. In
fact, both are different. Here mental maps are used to allow him to
tell us about his world rather than about the past of ours. We can use
a series to reconstruct this world: (i) a T-O map to explain the
actual sequence of movement in De locis sanctis and why
Arculf's arrival in Iona did not raise any questions for him; (ii) a
Square-V map of the races of mankind; (iii) a map of circles based on
Luke and Acts to explain the division of De locis sanctis into
books; (iv) a map of scriptural signs which would explain the temporal
inconsistencies in the description of places; and (v) an
eschatological map which shows the book beginning at the gates of
heaven and ending at the gates of hell.
KEYWORDS: geography, medieval cartography, exegesis, mental maps,
sacred space, sacred time, pilgrimage, De locis sanctis,
Thomas O'Loughlin, School of Celtic Studies, DIAS, 10 Burlington
Road, Dublin 4
11821 words, Peritia 10 (1996) 98-122. Turnhout:Brepols. ISBN
BERNHARD BISCHOFF (1906-1991): A MEMOIR
DÁIBHÍ Ó CRÓINÍN
ABSTRACT. Bernhard Bischoff was one of the greatest palaeographers and
medievalists of modern times. Besides his many important contributions
to the study of Late Antique and early medieval Latin manuscripts, he
also made path-breaking discoveries in the field of Hiberno-Latin
literature. This memoir offers a sruvey of his life and career by one
who knew him.
KEYWORDS: Anonymus ad Cuimnanum, Bischoff, Carolingian
manuscripts, Codices Latini antiquiores, glosses, oldest
Italian text, Paul Lehmann, E. A. Lowe, Munich school of palaeography,
Ludwig Traube, `Wendepunkte'.
Dáibhí Ó Cróinín, School of
History, University College, Galway firstname.lastname@example.org
5766 words. Peritia 10 (1996) 123-35. Turnhout:Brepols. ISBN
THE LLANDDEWI-BREFI `IDNERT' STONE
ABSTRACT. A now dismembered Welsh christian Latin memorial inscription
in 12 words and 64 letters was intricately constructed in `biblical
style'—allusive, arithmetical and (except to the initiated)
cryptographic. Analysis introduces this entirely new aspect of
post-400 Insular epigraphy. The `Idnert' memorial does not stand
alone, but may be unique in its pictorial culmination. An appendix
summarises related features from other memorials.
KEYWORDS: Insular Latin, biblical style, memorial inscriptions, Wales,
Cornwall, arithmetical composition, quasi-cryptograms, Crucifixion,
Calvaria, Rab(b)ula gospels, Idnert, Iaco, St David.
Charles Thomas, Lambessow, St Clement, Truro, Cornwall TR1 1TB,
21230 words, 5 figures. Peritia 10 (1996)
136-83. Turnhout:Brepols. ISBN 2-503-50574-0
HENRY II, THE COUNCIL OF CASHEL AND THE IRISH BISHOPS
MARIE THERESE FLANAGAN
ABSTRACT. The endorsement by the Irish episcopate of king Henry II's
personal intervention in Ireland has been viewed as an important
element in advancing Anglo-Norman interests in Ireland: this paper
explores the motivation, degree of unanimity, and import of the Irish
bishops' response, and its association with a church reform council at
Cashel. While factors promoting episcopal solidarity in the
twelfth-century Irish church may be identified, account also has to be
taken of tensions resulting from the relatively recent creation of a
diocesan constitution and, in the sphere of secular politics, the
struggle for the high-kingship, which would have served to undermine
collective episcopal action, as highlighted by the conflicting
concerns of Gilla Críst Ua Connairche, bishop of Lismore and
papal legate, and Cadla Ua Dubthaig, archbishop of Tuam.
KEYWORDS: Ireland, Anglo-Norman invasion, Irish church, synod/council
of Cashel, 1172, Henry II, king of England, pope Alexander III, Gilla
Críst Ua Connairche, bishop of Lismore, Cadla Ua Dubthaig,
archbishop of Tuam.
Marie Therese Flanagan, School of Modern History, Queen's
University, Belfast BT7 1NN email@example.com
14200 words. Peritia 10 (1996) 184-211. Turnhout:Brepols. ISBN
`KEEPING THE NATIVES IN ORDER': THE ENGLISH KING AND THE `CELTIC'
ABSTRACT. English kings exercised some control of the `Celtic'
societies on their periphery, 1066-1216, through well tried
mechanisms—parleys, submission, the surrender of hostages and
the payment of tribute, often in animals. This relationship was
essentially personal in character, non-penetrative in its nature, and
reflected the contemporary realities of power. It was a form of
extensive, or indirect, rather than intensive rule. In the later
twelfth century this relationship between the king of England and the
rulers of Scotland, Ireland and Wales was being re-defined and
intensified. Relationships were increasingly expressed in written
documents composed in the English chancery: the technical language of
feudal dependence was being applied; and there was growing emphasis on
the need to stipulate more precisely the tenurial, territorial and
jurisdictional dependence of the client rulers on their English
overlord. By the time of king John it looked as if an essentially
loose overlordship was about to be converted into a more direct
English lordship of the British Isles.
KEYWORDS: King of England; rulers of Wales, Ireland and Scotland;
submission and dependence, direct and indirect rule, extensive and
intensive authority, parleys, hostages, tribute, impact of written
definition of relationships, feudal dependence, tenurial and
Rees Davies, All Souls College, Oxford OX1 4AL
5999 words. Peritia 10 (1996) 212-24. Turnhout:Brepols. ISBN
HENRY II, RICHARD I AND THE LORD RHYS
ABSTRACT. It has generally been assumed that when Richard I insulted
the lord Rhys in October 1189 this needlessly brought to an end an
Anglo-Welsh detente that had lasted since 1171. Against this it is
argued that Rhys had already broken the peace twice before October
1189, and that Richard's employment of Gerald de Barri on missions to
Wales does not suggest that the refusal to meet Rhys was due to the
new king's indifference to Welsh affairs. It was Richard—and
not, as has always been thought, his brother John—who met the
other Welsh kings at Worcester in September 1189. Right from the start
Richard was determined to keep the peace with the Welsh (as with the
Scots)—a policy which paid off in 1193 when he was in prison in
Germany and they chose not to join John's rebellion.
KEYWORDS: Anglo-Welsh relations, Rhys ap Gruffudd, Henry II, Richard
I, John, Gerald de Barri (Gerald of Wales), Roger of Howden,
Deheubarth, Worcester, Brut y Tywysogyon, Glamorgan,
Abergavenny, William de Braose.
John Gillingham, Department of International History, London School
of Economics, London WC2 2AE
5850 words. Peritia 10 (1996) 225-36. Turnhout:Brepols. ISBN
1098 AND ALL THAT: THEOPHYLACT BISHOP OF SEMNEA AND THE ALEXIAN
RECONQUEST OF ANATOLIA
ABSTRACT. The reconquest of Anatolia by Alexios I Komnenos (1081-1118)
has been ignored by recent scholars; it was not emphasised by
narrative and panegyric sources close to the emperor, and the
epigraphic and archaeological evidence is sparse. That there was an
attempt at such a reconquest however is clear from three groups of
letters by Theophylact of Ochrid, relating to the Aegean islands
(expedition of John Doukas), Pontos (expedition of Gregory Taronites),
and the hinterland of Attaleia. This last group suggests that bishops
may have been in place in Semnea and Side at the time of writing. The
reconquest began with John Doukas's expedition to the islands in 1092,
received a setback with the cooling of Byzantine-crusader relations
after Antioch in 1098-89, and was seriously hampered by Bohemond's
invasion of Albania in 1107, though Alexios continued to plan a
counterattack until his death. The silence in his daughter Anna's
history, the Alexiad, and his (or his son John's) poem the
Mousai can be explained by the failure of Alexios's policy. If
a turning-point can be identified, it was Alexios's decision not to
advance to the assistance of the crusaders at Antioch in 1098.
KEYWORDS: Byzantium, reconquest, Alexios I Komnenos, Theophylact of
Ochrid, letter-writing, patronage, network, Bohemond, metropolitan of
Side, bishop of Semn(e)a; Danishmend, Anna Komnene's Alexiad,
the Mousai Crusade.
Margaret Mullett, School of Greek, Roman and Semitic Studies,
Queen's University, Belfast BT7 1NN firstname.lastname@example.org
7809 words. Peritia 10 (1996) 237-52. Turnhout:Brepols. ISBN
DAVID MACCARWELL AND THE PROPOSAL TO PURCHASE ENGLISH LAW,
ABSTRACT. It has long been known that David MacCarwell, archbishop of
Cashel (1254-89), played an important part in the attempted purchase
of English law for the Irish between about 1276 and 1280. This paper
argues that, although Edward I probably had no personal objection to
the extension of English law to the Irish, the primary role in
initiating and carrying forward the project was played by the
archbishop of Cashel; that the plan emerged from and followed his
successes between 1273 and 1277 in restoring the houses of the
Cistercian order in Ireland to the control of Mellifont and in
vindicating his rights as archbishop after a bitterly fought dispute
with Edward I and his administration in Ireland; and lastly that it
represented an attempted grand scheme of reconciliation between the
king and the archbishop, involving a re-definition of the relationship
between Gaelic Irish society and the English crown which would have
produced significant benefits for the church.
KEYWORDS: David MacCarwell, Edward I, Cashel, Cistercians, Mellifont,
English law, Brehon law, Ireland, England, Council of Lyons,
church-state relations, Anglo-Irish relations, Laudabiliter.
Seymour Phillips, Department of Medieval History, University
College, Dublin 4
12005 words. Peritia 10 (1996) 253-73. Turnhout:Brepols. ISBN
THOMAS ROKEBY, SHERIFF OF YORKSHIRE, JUSTICIAR OF IRELAND
ABSTRACT. Thomas Rokeby served as justiciar in Ireland (1349-57) after
making his reputation as a soldier and administrator during the
Anglo-Scottish wars. His justiciarship saw an attempt, encouraged by
Edward III after years of friction with some Anglo-Irish, to rule in
collaboration with those who mattered, including marcher lineages and
Gaelic lords. The approach to warfare emphasised the recovery of land
and its fortification. The underlying policy was to make Ireland
profitable, and it led to heavier English military intervention from
1361. Rokeby's handling of Irish politics and war may be better
understood in the context of his earlier service in the north. His
career highlights the contrasts as well as the parallels between two
frontiers of the Plantagenet state, and reveals the questionable
assumptions that underlay English policies in Ireland.
KEYWORDS: frontiers, medieval warfare, Irish medieval government,
Anglo-Scottish wars, north of England, Yorkshire, Cork, Wicklow,
earldom of Ulster, Edward III.
Robin Frame, Department of History, University of Durham, 43 North
Bailey, Durham DH1 3EX, England email@example.com
11307 words. Peritia 10 (1996) 274-96. Turnhout:Brepols. ISBN
LIONEL OF CLARENCE AND THE ENGLISH OF MEATH
ABSTRACT. Relations between the English colonial community in Ireland
and the English of England had become strained by the mid fourteenth
century, and the visit of the king's son, Lionel, to the lordship as
his father's deputy between 1361 and 1366 brought these tensions to
the surface. In 1366 one of Lionel's household, Henry de Ferrers, was
besieged at Clonee on the Meath-Dublin border by the local settler
gentry and had to be rescued by the lieutenant himself. The cause of
the dispute was Henry's marriage to Joan Tuit, a local heiress whose
previous marriage to a most important colonist of the region, Walter
Cusak (also her cousin), had been annulled by the bishop of Meath. In
1364 the archbishop of Armagh, Milo Sweteman, revoked this decision
and ordered Joan to resume living with Walter on pain of
excommunication. She refused. De Ferrers retained control of his
wife's estates even after her death, but when he died they passed to
Cusak. This incident provides an insight into the tensions between
settler and visitor `on the ground' and the way in which such disputes
were usually resolved in favour of the colonists.
KEYWORDS: Ireland, medieval colony, colonists, Lionel, Duke of
Clarence, marriage, inheritance, absentees.
Brendan Smith, Department of Historical Studies, University of
Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TB firstname.lastname@example.org
2601 words. Peritia 10 (1996) 297-302. Turnhout:Brepols. ISBN
GOVERNMENT BY COMMISSION: THE CONTINUAL COUNCIL OF 1386 AND ENGLISH
W. M. ORMROD
ABSTRACT. The extraordinary council established in the `wonderful'
parliament of October-November 1386 to inquire into and reform the
royal administration had a pivotal role in the politics of Richard
II's reign: its attack on the prerogative powers of the crown explains
much of the vehemence with which the king subsequently proceeded
against its members. The opposition of the king, and his removal from
the capital in 1387, are commonly supposed to have prevented the
commission fulfilling the expectations of the political community. In
fact, the limitations of its actions were determined as much by the
naivety and conservatism of parliament evident in the powers accorded
to the council. The administrative record reveals that it took active
steps to assert its judicial authority, to control royal patronage,
and to impose retrenchment in the management of the king's
finances. Although it formally held power for only a year, the work of
the commission had an enduring influence on the development of the
council as an administrative agency of the crown.
KEYWORDS: medieval politics, government, administration, kingship,
Richard II, royal council, royal justice, royal finance, patronage.
W. M. Ormrod, Centre for Medieval Studies, University of York, York
9634 words. Peritia 10 (1996) 303-21. Turnhout:Brepols. ISBN
MISTRANSLATIONS AND MISINTERPRETATIONS IN MEDIEVAL ENGLISH HISTORY
J. O. PRESTWICH
ABSTRACT. Despite the many excellent translations of Latin sources for
the history of England in the two centuries following the Norman
conquest, it is easy to forget the inevitable limitations of all
translations and to overlook the occasional mistranslations which
still influence, or are influenced by, interpretations of the
period. The examples considered here include laboriose as
applied to king John and others (meaning with difficulty, not
indefatigably); the purpose or purposes of Domesday Book and the oath
of Salisbury (the first, it is argued, being a purely fiscal measure,
the second to secure the loyalty of knights at a critical juncture);
the mistaken belief in `natural counsellors', whereas naturalis
in political contexts means native-born, reflecting the strength
of anti-alien sentiment in thirteenth-century England; and the
evidence for a plurality of royal treasures rather than a single
KEYWORDS: Saladin tithe, king John, Domesday Book, oath of Salisbury,
`natural counsellors', treasures.
J. O. Prestwich, The Queen's College, Oxford, OX1 4AW
9138 words. Peritia 10 (1996) 322-40. Turnhout:Brepols. ISBN
THE ROUEN RIOT AND CONAN'S LEAP
ABSTRACT. The Rouen urban riot was less a bid for communal
independence than the outcome of a power struggle between the sons of
William the Conqueror. The rebels, led by a wealthy merchant, Conan,
were allied to king William II of England, who was trying to wrest
Normandy from his elder brother, duke Robert Curthose. Henry, the
third brother, rendered decisive aid to Curthose and led the
aristocratic faction that defeated William II's allies in Rouen and
seized Conan. Taking him atop the tower of Rouen, Henry ignored
Conan's pleas for mercy and pushed him to his death. Although
historians often cite this episode as evidence of Henry's cruelty,
most contemporaries saw it as a proper punishment of a traitorous
upstart. The contrast between Henry's courage and Curthose's timidity
could well explain why the duke turned against Henry shortly
afterwards and then went on Crusade.
KEYWORDS: Robert Curthose, William II, Henry, Normandy, medieval
towns, Rouen, Conan, urban riots, Cotentin, Robert of Bellême,
Orderic Vitalis, William of Malmesbury.
C. Warren Hollister, 4592 Via Clarice, Santa Barbara, CA 93111,
4596 words. Peritia 10 (1996) 341-50. Turnhout:Brepols. ISBN
THE PORTRAYAL OF WOMEN IN THE HISTOIRE DE GUILLAUME LE
ABSTRACT. The author of the French verse life of William Marshal,
writing in the 1220s, depicts women as marginal to a male-dominated
aristocratic power structure. Nevertheless, he portrays them
favourably and without the distortions of literary convention.
KEYWORDS: William Marshal, Isabel de Clare, courtly literature,
medieval marriage, gender stereotypes.
Evelyn Mullally, School of Modern Languages, Queen's University,
Belfast BT7 1NN
5655 words. Peritia 10 (1996) 351-62. Turnhout:Brepols. ISBN
WILLIAM REEVES AND THE MEDIEVAL TEXTS AND MANUSCRIPTS AT ARMAGH
ABSTRACT. The achievement of William Reeves as Armagh keeper can be
closely associated with the changing mid-nineteenth-century fortunes
of the Armagh library property. In the absence of a detailed survey of
small Irish collections to match the example set by N. R. Ker's
magisterial Medieval manuscripts in British libraries, this
study traces the crucial role played by Reeves in the history of
several important manuscripts and early books now in Armagh Public
KEYWORDS: Armagh Public Library and archiepiscopal registry, Lord John
George Beresford, Book of Armagh, James H. Todd, John O'Donovan,
archbishop Richard Robinson, Lodge manuscripts, Annals of
Clonmacnoise, Conell Mageoghagan, Michael Ignatius Dugan, Roderick
O'Flaherty, Walter Harris, Sir James Ware, Richard Pynson, John
Lydgate's Fall of Princes, Pontigny manuscripts, Abbé
Joseph Felix Allard, Sir Thomas Phillipps, Rabanus Maurus
John Thompson, School of English, Queen's University of Belfast,
Belfast BT7 1NN
8950 words. Peritia 10 (1996) 363-80. Turnhout:Brepols. ISBN
Peritia Volume 11 (1997)
ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS IN THE IRISH ANNALS AND THEIR MOTIVATION
DANIEL MCCARTHY & AIDAN BREEN
ABSTRACT. The astronomical entries in the Irish annals have been examined in a
serious astronomical context by R. R. Newton as part of his research into the
accelerations of the earth and moon, and by D. Schove and A. Fletcher as part of
the Spectrum of Time project. They have never, however, been fully collated and
examined as a whole as this paper undertakes to do. What emerges is a body of
records from 442 to 1133 documenting eclipses, comets, aurorae, volcanic dust
clouds, and possibly a supernova; from 627 to 1133 all of these records are of
observations made in or near Ireland, and most of them are accurate in their
chronological and descriptive details. Analysis of the details of these records
implies that at least from the seventh to the eleventh centuries careful and
sustained observation and recording of astronomical phenomena was conducted in some
Irish monasteries and it is clear that the underlying motive was religious and
specifically eschatological, viz. to detect the first signs of the end of time as
prognosticated in the Book of Revelation. Critical examination of these data throws
new light on the circumstances of the Synod of Whitby in 664, establishes the date
of the eruption of the volcano Eldgjá in Iceland as springtime of 939, and
identifies a possible Western observation of the supernova of 1054.
KEYWORDS: Irish annals, chronology, medieval Irish astronomical observation,
eclipses, comets, aurorae, volcanic clouds, supernova, eschatology, Eldgjá, synod
Daniel Mc Carthy, Department of Computer Science, Trinity College, Dublin 2.
Aidan Breen, School of Celtic Studies, DIAS, Dublin 4
18728 words, Peritia 11 (1997) 1-43. ISBN 2-505-50379-9
THE ANNALS OF ULSTER AND THE DATE OF THE MEETING AT DRUIM CETT
ABSTRACT. Source-criticism of the sixth-century entries in AU supports Sharpe's
redating of the meeting at Druim Cett (AU s.a. 574) to c.590. AU's Druim Cett entry
was composed by a twelfth-century compiler as part of a stratum of additions and
duplications to fill empty years in AU's main source, the so-called `Chronicle of
KEYWORDS: Druim Cett, sixth-century annals, chronology, Chronicle of Ireland,
Annals of Ulster, Annals of Tigernach, Annals of Inisfallen, Armagh, Derry, Vita
Michael Meckler, Department of Classics, Humanities Building, Union College,
Schenectady NY 12308. email@example.com
3434 words, Peritia 11 (1997) 44-52. ISBN 2-505-50379-9
INSULAR LATIN WRITERS' RHYTHMS
ABSTRACT. Following the models of fifth-century Romano-British writers
Hiberno-Latin writers of the sixth and seventh centuries composed prose that
exhibits both stressed rhythms of the cursus and quantitative rhythms of clausulae.
They composed syllabic verse in which shifts of stressed rhythm articulate
structures, and they understood the principles of composition of quantitative
verse. Anglo-Latin writers from the seventh century onward also composed such prose
and verse. The consistent correctness of their works may issue from tuition by
Welsh descendants of Romano-Britons, whose Latin was not influenced by evolving
proto-Romance vernaculars, or from intellectual archaeology and book-learning with
little exposure to native speakers.
KEYWORDS: St Patrick, Gildas, Columban of Bangor, Mo Sinu maccu Min and Mo Chuoróc
maccu Net Sémon, Cummian, Laidcenn mac Baíth, Aileranus Sapiens, Virgilius Maro
Grammaticus, sepulchral inscription in clausular rhythm and quantitative verse, De
ordine creaturarum, letter from Laurentius, Mellitus, and Iustus, letter from the
papal curia, St Sechnall's Hymn, Benchuir bona regula, letter to Feradach, Wilfrid,
Theodore, charters of kings Hlothhere and Eadric, Aldhelm, Cellán of Péronne,
Aedeluald bishop of Lindisfarne, acrostic prayer, Alchfrith the anchorite, Bede.
David Howlett, Dictionary of Medieval Latin from British Sources, Bodleian Library,
Oxford OX1 3BG. firstname.lastname@example.org
22831 words, Peritia 11 (1997) 53-116. ISBN 2-505-50379-9
ISRAELITE LEARNING IN INSULAR LATIN (In memory of Henry Ephron and Nakdimon
ABSTRACT. This article considers the evidence of nearly sixty words from sixteen
texts for independent knowledge of the Hebrew language among Insular scholars from
the seventh century onward.
KEYWORDS: Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek, Insular Latin, rhyme,
alliteration, cursus rhythms, parallelism, chiasmus, mathematical
composition, barbarism, solecism; Columban of Bangor, Virgilius Maro
Grammaticus, Laidcenn mac Baíth, Sergilius, Anonymous of
Whitby, Æthelwold, Lantfred, Ælfric Bata, Book of
Cerne, Harley Glossary, Anglo-Saxon charters, Altus
Prosator, Hisperica famina, Lorica, Aldhelmi
Carmen rhythmicum, Adelphus adelpha mater, Rubisca,
Altercatio magistri et discipuli, Abba, Adonai,
agga, aina, alle, alleluia, amen,
arotus, asarus, bamus, bata,
bathma, bethe, caladus/cladus, carsus,
cherub, ciboneus, clalissus, curuana,
edenus, Gabrihel, Galileus, gansia,
Gehenna, gibonifer, gibra, gibro,
gibrosus, gigra, Ia, iarus, idama,
Israeliticus, Laisa, lamach, lisana,
mazaroth, Michael, Moyses, nechrus,
Olla, patha, rachas, ros, saurus,
senna, sennosus, seraph, Sinai,
Sion, sudum, vonere, zabaoth, zadi,
David Howlett, Dictionary of Medieval Latin from British Sources, Bodleian Library,
Oxford OX1 3BG. email@example.com
11523 words, Peritia 11 (1997) 117-52. ISBN 2-505-50379-9
THE MOVEMENT OF WATER AS SYMBOLISED BY MONSTERS IN EARLY IRISH TEXTS
ABSTRACT. Several early Irish texts describe monsters that pose a threat to people
who enter water. Their names and/or activities sometimes indicate sucking,
swallowing and spewing, verbs that could refer to the movement of water, for
instance, vortexes and tides. One may, therefore, connect one layer of textual
symbolism with the movements of water: monsters partly personify these phenomena.
This paper describes the chronological and conceptual development of this
personification. Two lines of development are distinguished. The older consists of
early Hiberno-Latin texts that use a name from classical mythology (Charybdis) as a
technical term for whirlpools, and that do not connect the motif of the swallowing
and spewing monsters with the movement of water. The later is represented by
Middle-Irish texts and seems to begin with the Old-Irish Echtra Fergusa maic Leiti
where a water monster (muirdris) inflates and contracts itself. This symbolism
appears to climax in a small late Middle-Irish text that describes a monster in the
Indian Ocean that causes the tides. The symbolism in this text has become explicit,
and more complex because of external influence.
KEYWORDS: classical mythology, Odyssey, Aeneid, Charybdis, Hiberno-Latin, Columba,
Adomnán, Muirchú, Altus prosator, Hisperica famina, Echtra Fergusa maic Leiti, Amra
Choluim Cille, Dindshenchas, Acallam na senórach, Duanaire Finn, Tenga bithnúa,
Coire Brecáin, Loch Rudraige, water, whirlpool, tides, monsters, muirdris,
Jacqueline Borsje, School of Celtic Studies,DIAS, 10 Burlington Road, Dublin 4.
2582 words, Peritia 11 (1997) 153-70. ISBN 2-503-50574-0
FOUR MINIMS AND A QUANDARY: BEOWULF, 1382a
GREGORY F. ROSE
ABSTRACT. An statistical analysis of the four minims that follow d in f 160v of the
text of Beowulf in London, British Library, MS Cotton Vitellius A. XV, that shows
that the reading wundini is by far the most probable. Metrical and philological
evidence is considered in this context of the scribe's practice and pattern of
KEYWORDS: Beowulf, Anglo-Saxon, Anglo-Saxon poetics, metrics, textual criticism,
statistical analysis of text, linguistic archaism, palaeography.
Gregory F. Rose, Dept Economics & Finance, University of Mississippi, MS 38677.
5053 words, Peritia 11 (1997) 171-87. ISBN 2-505-50379-9.
MARRIAGE AND SEXUALITY IN THE HIBERNENSIS
ABSTRACT. The Collectio canonum hibernensis, as a systematic collection of law,
brought with it a development in the Latin understanding of the theology of
marriage. By taking certain patristic positions and codifying them it produced a
particular understanding of marriage as a state secondary to virginity. This can be
seen as a point of transition between the diverse patristic positions and the
relatively unified theology of marriage that emerges in classical canon law in the
KEYWORDS: marriage, sexuality, canon law, Hibernensis, medieval theology, exegesis,
virginity, Augustine, Ambrose, Gratian, Genesis, original sin, manicheism, Julian
Thomas O'Loughlin, Department of Theology and Religious Studies,
University of Wales, Ceredigion, SA48 7ED Wales.
7053 words, Peritia 11 (1997) 188-206. ISBN 2-503-50623-2.
ISIDORIAN TEXTS AND THE HIBERNENSIS
LUNED MAIR DAVIES
ABSTRACT. Past scholars have taught us much about the date, form and authorship of
the Collectio canonum hibernensis (CCH), but little about the compilers' use of
their sources. They used at least six Isidorian texts. Various manuscript
traditions of Isidore's writings were drawn on in Ireland and at Insular centres on
the Continent. Use of Isidorian texts is more evident in manuscripts of the B
recension than of the A recension of the CCH. The more accurate quotation of
Isidorian texts in Breton manuscripts shows that there existed a distinct Breton
textual tradition among the CCH manuscripts.
KEYWORDS: Medieval canon law, legal history, intellectual history, patristics,
church, Isidore of Seville, Origines, De ecclesiasticis officis, Questiones in
vetus testamantum, Chronicon, Epistula ad Massonam, De distantia graduum,
Hibernensis, Hiberno-Latin, Ireland, Spain, Iona, Bobbio.
Luned Mair Davies, Gwent Record Office, Co Hall, Cwmbrân, Gwent, Wales NP44 2XH.
14637 words, Peritia 11 (1997) 207-249. ISBN 2-503-50623-2.
THREE WORKS ON THE BOOK OF KELLS
ABSTRACT. An extended review of recent literature on the Book of Kells and related
manuscripts, notably on historical, textual, art-historical, decorative, stylistic,
liturgical, exegetical and chronological problems. The provenance and date of the
Book of Kells and its place in the art and culture of its broader Insular milieu
(Ireland, Scotland and Northumbria) is considered in detail.
KEYWORDS: cultural history, art history, illuminated manuscripts, Insular
palaeography, Book of Kells, Book of Durrow, canon tables, evangelist symbols, high
crosses, early Insular stonework, early Insular metalwork, Coptic influence, Roman
influence, early medieval Ireland, Iona, Kells, Northumbria.
Martin Werner, Art History Dept, Temple University,Philadelphia PA 19122.
34306 words, Peritia 11 (1997) 250-326. ISBN 2-505-50379-9.
DE ORATORIO: HISPERICA FAMINAAND CHURCH BUILDING
ABSTRACT. New architectural interpretations of the use of the terms gremium,
porticus, and pinna in `De oratorio' in Hisperica famina, a text that throws
valuable light on early medieval church-building in Ireland.
KEYWORDS: art, archaeology, architecture, liturgy, early medieval Irish churches,
Hisperica famina, gremium, porticus, penna, finials.
Niall Brady, History Dept, Trinity College, Hartford, CT 06106, USA.
2395 words, Peritia 11 (1997) 327-335. ISBN 2-505-50379-9.
THE SOUTHERN UÍ NÉILL AND THE POLITICAL LANDSCAPE OF LOUGH ENNELL
CATHERINE E. KARKOV & JOHN RUFFING
ABSTRACT. The significance of Clann Cholmáin domination of the medieval Irish
midlands has long been recognised by scholars in a variety of fields. This paper
documents the nature of that settlement in and around Lough Ennell and Lough Owel
and examines the economic and political factors that may have motivated the
development of this area. The Clann Cholmáin royal settlement of Cróinis/Dún na
Sgiath is then situated within a larger regional and national context in which the
development of the local landscape becomes a notable factor in the Uí Néill bid for
the control of Ireland.
KEYWORDS: Settlement sites, Lough Ennell, Lough Owel, crannóg, ringfort,
monasteries, Clann Cholmáin, Betha Colmáin maic Lúachain, Slige Assail, fishing
platforms, Cróinis, Uí Néill, Fir Thulach, coin hoards.
Catherine E. Karkov, Miami University, Oxford OH 45056, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
John Ruffing, Cornell University.
6822 words, Peritia 11 (1997) 336-58. ISBN 2-505-50379-9.
DAIRE MÓR IDENTIFIED
ABSTRACT. The identification on archaeological and toponomastic grounds of the
modern site of Longfordpass alias Durrihy with that of the early medieval church
site of Daire Mór on the medieval Leinster-Munster border.
KEYWORDS: archaeology, church architecture, Irish church sites, Daire Mór, Liath Mo
Chóemóc, Longfordpass, Durrihy, Irish toponomastics, hagiography.
Conleth Manning, Dúchas: the Heritage Service, 53 St Stephen's Green, Dublin 2.
3252 words, Peritia 11 (1997) 359-69.ISBN 2-505-50379-9.
A SECOND OGHAM STONE AT CLARA
CONLETH MANNING & FIONNBARR MOORE
ABSTRACT. Publication and commentary on an ogham stone from Clara, Co Kilkenny,
with observations on the relationship between church sites and the distribution of
KEYWORDS: archaeology, Irish church sites, Clara, ogham (ogam), ogham distribution.
Conleth Manning & Fionnbarr Moore, Dúchas: the Heritage Service,51 St Stephen's
Green, Dublin 2
1048 words, Peritia 11 (1997) 370-72. ISBN 2-505-50379-9.
Peritia Volume 12 (1998)
VITA I SANCTAE BRIGITAE
ABSTRACT. Evidence is presented here for the orthographic,
grammatical, and syntactical correctness and the computistic and
architectonic competence of composition of Vita I sanctae
Brigitae, its priority to and influence on the Vita II by
Cogitosus of Kildare, and its authorship by Aileranus Sapiens, lector
of Clonard, who died in 665.
KEYWORDS: Brigit, Ultán moccu Chonchobair, Ailerán of
Clonard, Cogitosus of Kildare, Donatus Scottus of Fiesole, Vita
primitiua sanctae Brigitae, Vita I, Vita II, Rheims
verses, Vita metrica sanctae Brigidae, Bethu
Phátraic, Tírechán Collectanea,
rhyming rhythmic prose, cursus, chiastic and computistic and
David Howlett, Dictionary of Medieval Latin from British
Sources, Bodleian Library, Oxford OX1 3BG.
7956 words, Peritia 12 (1998) 1-23. ISBN 2-503-50624-0.
SCHOLARLY CONTACTS BETWEEN THE IRISH AND THE SOUTHERN ENGLISH IN
THE SEVENTH CENTURY
MICHAEL W. HERREN
ABSTRACT. This is an overview of the evidence for contact between
Irish and English scholars in southern England in the seventh
century. Our main source of information the letters of Aldhelm and his
correspondents, supplemented by Bede, the Laterculus
Malalianus, and 7th- and 8th-century Latin-Old English
glossaries. These provide evidence for works then known in southern
England, including Hiberno-Latin texts and works possibly transmitted
by the Irish. Irish literary influence on Anglo-Latin writing is also
treated, as are some `faultlines' such as biblical exegesis and
KEYWORDS: Aethilwald, Agilbert, Aldhelm, `Altus prosator', Bede,
biblical exegesis, bilingualism, Cellanus, Columba, chronography,
glossaries, Greek, hispericisms, Hadrian, Isidore of Seville,
Laterculus Malalianus, Leuthere, `Lorica of Laidcenn', Milred's
codex, De mirabilibus sacrae scripturae, mythography,
Orosius, Philargyrius, `Rubisca', synod of Whitby, Theodore of
Canterbury, Theodore of Mopsuestia, Virgilius Maro Grammaticus,
Michael W. Herren, Atkinson College 725,York University, Toronto
M3J 1P3, Canada. email@example.com
9993 words, Peritia 12 (1998) 24-53. ISBN 2-503-50624-0.
*** Howlett's The Brigitine hymn Xpistus in nostra insula is missing,
should be 12.4
HELLENIC LEARNING IN INSULAR LATIN: AN ESSAY ON SUPPORTED
ABSTRACT. The evidence for knowledge of Greek in these islands
before the ninth century under nine headings: explicit testimony,
ability to read and write Greek script, understanding of Greek
phonology, correct use of Greek words already borrowed into Classical
and Late Latin, coinage of words borrowed into Insular Latin from
Greek, direct reliance upon Greek texts, play with Greek letters as
numbers, parody, and dating of authors and texts and learning.
KEYWORDS: Greek, Greek script, Greek phonology, transliterated
Greek, classical languages, early medieval Britain and Ireland,
Insular scholarship, Insular authors.
David Howlett, Dictionary of Medieval Latin from British
Sources, Bodleian Library, Oxford OX1
8811 words, Peritia 12 (1998) 54-78. ISBN 2-503-50624-0.
NOTWENDIGE BEMERKUNGEN ZU GORMANS `CRITIQUE OF BISCHOFF'S THEORY OF
ABSTRACT. The publication in 1954 of Bischoff's paper on medieval
Irish exegetical texts (`Wendepunkte') marked a turning-point in the
modern study of Hiberno-Latin literature. However, a recent critique
of that paper by Dr Michael Gorman claims to cast doubt on Bischoff's
findings, and on his methodology. That critique has raised issues
which it is necessary to confront, and this article offers a
KEYWORDS: Hiberno-Latin, Irish exegesis, Bernhard Bischoff,
Wendepunkte, Michael Gorman.
Gabriel Silagi, Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Postfach 340223,
D-80088 Munich. firstname.lastname@example.org
1788 words, Peritia 12 (1998) 87-94. ISBN 2-503-50624-0.
ZUR GRAMMATIK IN PARIS BIBL. NAT. MS LAT. 7491
ABSTRACT. Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, MS. lat. 7491,
contains a Latin grammatical tract with close affinities to the texts
discussed in Der hibernolateinische Grammatiker Malsachanus and
in the well-known Expossitio Latinitatis of the Anonymus ad
Cuimnanum (ed. by Bischoff and Löftsedt in 1992). Many of the
unusual linguistic forms of the previously discussed texts are here
confirmed, and the Paris tract identified as another source for the
study of Hiberno-Latin grammatical doctrine in the early middle
KEYWORDS: Anonymus ad Cuimnanum, Boniface, Hiberno-Latin, grammar,
Bengt Löfstedt, 157 North Bowling Green Way, Los Angeles,
CA 90049, USA.
1127 words, Peritia 12 (1998) 198-200. ISBN
THE STATUS OF THE PRE-PATRICIAN IRISH ANNALS
DANIEL MC CARTHY
ABSTRACT. This investigation of the pre-Patrician material in Irish
annals first reviews the historiography, then examines the chronology
of Roman imperial successions, and reveals a conflation of Eutropius's
Breviarium with Jerome's Chronicle. Collation with
Bede's Chronicon maior shows these annals and Bede have a
common source. The annals preserve more of this source and its
chronological apparatus. The Alexandrian episcopal succession in AT
derives directly from Rufinus's History, and the errors suggest
that he himself constructed it. The Hebrew succession in Bede and AI
reveals divergences from Jerome's chronology, not plausibly the work
of Bede but appropriate to Rufinus. Hence the hypothesis that Rufinus
compiled a chronicle in the early fifth century, that it came to
Ireland with the 84-year paschal table of Sulpicius Severus, and that
it was used in Iona in the mid-sixth century as the basis for the
KEYWORDS: pre-Patrician annals, chronology, latercus,
paschal tables, chronicles, Roman imperial successions, episcopal
successions, Anatolius, Eutropius, Eusebius, Rufinus, Jerome, Bede,
De ratione paschali, De temporum ratione, Annals of
Tigernach, Annals of Inisfallen, Iona Chronicle.
Daniel Mc Carthy, Department of Computer Science, Trinity
College, Dublin 2. email@example.com
20464 words, Peritia 12 (1998) 98-152. ISBN
SOURCES OF THE `WORLD CHRONICLE' IN THE COTTONIAN ANNALS
K. L. MAUND
ABSTRACT. This is an analysis of the sources used in the world
history section of the Cottonian annals, with an assessment of the
relation this section of the text bears to world history sections in
other extant Irish chronicle-texts. It identifies a number of sources,
and points to a previously unnoticed dependence on the Summa de
ecclesiasticis officiis of Johannes Beleth.
KEYWORDS: Irish annals, world chronicle, Eusebius-Jerome, Isidore
of Seville, Prosper of Aquitaine, Josephus, Legenda aurea,
Johannes Beleth, monastery of Boyle.
Kari L. Maund, School of History and Archaeology, University of
Wales, Cardiff, PO Box 909, Cardiff, CF1
10525 words, Peritia 12 (1998) 153-76. ISBN
CREATING THE PAST: THE EARLY IRISH GENEALOGICAL TRADITION (CARROLL
DONNCHADH Ó CORRÁIN
ABSTRACT. The medieval Irish genealogies, from the seventh to the
seventeenth centuries, are the product literate creators, and not of
an oral tradition. The formal models of the surviving texts are
biblical genealogy and in the oldest strata of the genealogies
significant portions of the text are in Latin-further evidence that
they are a learned cultural artifact.
KEYWORDS: genealogy, Irish social history, historicism, orality,
bible, biblical models, Orosius, Isidore, Laidcend mac Baíth,
Donnchadh Ó Corráin, Department of History,NUI,
10314 words, Peritia 12 (1998) 177-208. ISBN
THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE HIBERNENSIS
T. M. CHARLES-EDWARDS
ABSTRACT. This study uses a single main tool, comparison of the
collection of `contrary cases' at the end of the Collectio canonum
Hibernensis (book 67 in the A recension) with corresponding
material in books 21-29. It has two main purposes, to reveal something
of the way in which the compilers worked and to help towards resolving
the issue of which recension was the earlier.
KEYWORDS: canon law, Collectio canonum Hibernensis, early
Irish law of theft.
Thomas Charles-Edwards, Jesus College, Oxford, OX1 3DW.
11303 words, Peritia 12 (1998) 209-37. ISBN
SYNODUS PRIMA SANCTI PATRICII: AN EXERCISE IN TEXTUAL
ABSTRACT. An attempt to restore the text of the Synodus prima
S. Patricii from the internal evidence of orthography and
diction in discrete canons, in adjacent canons, in groups of canons
arranged chiastically, the whole confirmed by arithmetical features
infixed in the preliminaries.
KEYWORDS: Patrick, Auxilius, Isserninus, Secundinus, synod, style,
arithmetical composition, chiastic structure, Insular Latin.
David Howlett, Dictionary of Medieval Latin from British
Sources, Bodleian Library, Oxford OX1
4530 words, Peritia 12 (1998) 238-53. ISBN
THE STRUCTURE OF THE LIBER ANGELI
ABSTRACT. The edition of the Liber angeli that follows is
reconstructed with attention to infixed features that guarantee the
authenticity and integrity of the text.
KEYWORDS: Book of Armagh, Liber angeli, Insular
Latin, arithmetic composition, calendrical composition, cursus
rhythms, rhyming prose.
Dictionary of Medieval Latin from British Sources, Bodleian Library,
Oxford OX1 3BG. firstname.lastname@example.org
5743 words, Peritia 12 (1998) 253-20. ISBN 2-503-50624-0
ALDHELM'S DE VIRGINITATE-PATRISTIC PASTICHE OR INNOVATIVE
ABSTRACT. Aldhelm's De virginitate exists within a network
of writings focused on the eulogisation of a very central christian
ideal, virginitas. Initially, it will be argued that Aldhelm is
drawing on the works of the Greek and Latin Fathers. This will be
followed by a discussion on the three states of perfection. Finally,
there is an exploration of Aldhelm's concept of virginity. It will be
argued that Aldhelm's ideal is as much a reflection of the
contemporary situation as an indication of his indebtedness to a
KEYWORDS: Church Fathers, virginity, marriage, sexuality,
Sinéad O'Sullivan, St Annes, Oxford OX2 6HS.
8092 words, Peritia 12 (1998) 271-95. ISBN 2-503-50624-0
THE VIKINGS IN SCOTLAND AND IRELAND IN THE NINTH CENTURY
DONNCHADH Ó CORRÁIN
ABSTRACT. This study attempts to provide a new framework for
ninth-century Irish and Scottish history. Viking Scotland, known as
Lothlend, Laithlinn, Lochlainn and comprising the Northern and
Western Isles and parts of the mainland, especially Caithness,
Sutherland and Inverness, was settled by Norwegian Vikings in the
early ninth century. By the mid-century it was ruled by an effective
royal dynasty that was not connected to Norwegian Vestfold. In the
second half of the century it made Dublin its headquarters, engaged in
warfare with Irish kings, controlled most Viking activity in Ireland,
and imposed its overlordship and its tribute on Pictland and
Strathclyde. When expelled from Dublin in 902 it returned to Scotland
and from there it conquered York and re-founded the kingdom of Dublin
KEYWORDS: Vikings, Vikings wars, Vestfold dynasty, Lothlend,
Laithlind, Laithlinn, Lochlainn, Scotland, Pictland,
Strathclyde, Dublin, York, Cath Maige Tuired, Cath Ruis na
Ríg for Bóinn, Irish annals, Scottish
Chronicle, battle of Clontarf, Ímar, Amlaíb, Magnus
Donnchadh Ó Corráin, Department of History,
National University of Ireland, Cork. email@example.com
14134 words, Peritia 12 (1998) 296-339. ISBN
DRUIM CETT REVISITED
ABSTRACT. Sharpe's argument that the meeting of Druim Cett took
place around 590 instead of 575 as recorded in the Annals of
Ulster is not founded on solid evidence. It is uncertain whether
Báetán mac Ninnedo or Áed mac Ainmirech was king
of Cenél Conaill or Tara at the time, but the latter could have
organised a meeting in 575, no matter what his title. According to
Adomnán two boys were present who later became kings and
reached the age of about 85. Even if we take it that Adomnán
gives us accurate information, which is doubtful, this is not such an
exceptional high age for persons in early medieval Ireland as Sharpe
KEYWORDS: Irish annals, king-lists, lifespan, kingship of Tara,
Cenél Conaill, Adomnán, Columba, Druim Cett.
Bart Jaski, Universiteit van Utrecht, Vakgroep Geschiedenis,
Kromme Nieuwegracht 66, 3512 HL Utrecht, The Netherlands.
3395 words, Peritia12 (1998) 340-50. ISBN
THE INAUGURATION OF TAIRDELBACH Ó CONCHOBAIR AT ÁTH
ABSTRACT. This paper identifies Áth an Termoinn with
Áth Carpait, which was situated on the River Boyle in the
termonland of Es mac nEirc, in Mag Luirg. It is argued that the
transfer of the Ó Conchobair inauguration ceremony to Es mac
nEirc in 1106 was the result of Muirchertach Ó Briain's
intervention in Connacht affairs and the determination of the coarb of
Da Chonna to detach the Uí Chonchobair from their traditional
kingship ritual and king-making site.
KEYWORDS: Áth Carpait, Áth an Termoinn, Carn
Fraích, Carraig an Dúin, Cluain Coirpthe, coarb
of Berach, coarb of Da Chonna, Connacht, Cruachu, Es mac nEirc,
inauguration, Mag Luirg, Mocmoyne, Muirchertach Ó Briain,
Ráth Both, river Boyle, Síl Muiredaig, St Patrick's
well, termon, Termonbarry, Uí Mhaoil Chonaire
Elizabeth FitzPatrick, Department of Archaeology, National
University of Ireland, Galway. firstname.lastname@example.org
2515 words, Peritia 12 (1998) 351-58. ISBN
GOD'S AND THE KING'S GOOD SERVANT: RICHARD POORE, BISHOP OF
SALISBURY, 1217-28 (DENIS BETHELL MEMORIAL LECTURE 1997)
ABSTRACT. Richard Poore made an important contribution to the
English church in the early thirteenth century. As dean of Salisbury
(1197-1215) he codified the cathedral customs, and as bishop (1217-28)
he implemented reform of the church locally, issuing probably the
earliest surviving English synodal statutes and governing the diocese
wisely and efficiently. He also served the crown in various
capacities. He oversaw the removal of his see from Old Sarum to New
Salisbury, where a new cathedral was begun in 1220.
KEYWORDS: Salisbury, Richard Poore, bishop, diocese, cathedral,
synodal statutes, parish churches, ecclesiastical jurisdiction, royal
government, judicial eyre.
B. R. Kemp, Department of History, University of Reading,
Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6AA, England .
8391 words, Peritia 12 (1998) 358-77. ISBN
Peritia 13 (1999)
THE EUSEBIAN APPARATUS IN SOME VULGATE GOSPEL BOOKS
ABSTRACT. In certain Vulgate gospel books there is a full
cross-referencing system that is based on the work of Eusebius of
Caesarea. A study of this apparatus may tell us a great deal about the
textual tradition and inter-relationships of gospel books, as well as
providing information for the history of gospel exegesis. An edition,
as a starting point for further comparisons, of this apparatus from St
Gallen 1395 (oldest Vulgate codex) and the Book of Durrow is
KEYWORDS: gospel books, Insular manuscripts, canon tables, Eusebius
of Caesarea, Eusebian apparatus, Jerome, Vulgate, marginalia,
Thomas OLoughlin, Dept of Theology and Religious Studies,
University of Wales, Ceredigion, SA48 7ED Wales.
15488 words, Peritia 13 (1999) 192. ISBN
MEDIUS AS MIDDLE AND MEAN
ABSTRACT. A survey of evidence of an Insular Latin tradition of
composition from the fifth century to the fifteenth, in which writers
make words exhibit by their position varied mathematical
meanings. These writers and texts include Adelard of Bath, Aediluulf,
Ailerán, Aldhelm, Asser, Bede, Boethius, Boniface, Columban,
Cummian, Dicuill, Geoffrey of Monmouth, Gildas, Giraldus Cambrensis,
Henry of Huntingdon, Israel Grammaticus, Jocelin of Furness, John of
Kelso, John of Salisbury, Moucan, Osbern of Gloucester, Patrick,
Pelagius, Peter of Cornwall, Robertus de Hopprew, Theodore of
Canterbury, Turgot of Durham, Virgilius Maro Grammaticus, William of
Malmesbury, Ciues celestis patrie, De situ Albanie,
Encomium Emmae, Jeu dAdam, Nauigatio
S. Brendani, Synodus episcoporum, St Margarets Gospel
Book, Vita S. Conwoionis, Vita S. Iltuti.
KEYWORDS: dimidius, dimidium, mediator,
medietas, mediocris, mediocritas,
medioximus, medium, medius, mean.
David Howlett, Dictionary of Medieval Latin from British
Sources, Bodleian Library, Oxford OX1 3BG.
11701 words, Peritia 13 (1999) 9312. ISBN
DICUILL ON THE ISLANDS OF THE NORTH
ABSTRACT. An edition, translation, and analysis of Dicuills
Liber de mensura orbis terrae, vii 615 in which verbal
and arithmetic features enable the reader to authenticate the text
internally, to understand the basis of his correction of the accounts
of ancient geographers, and to ascertain possible dates of an
expedition by Irish clerics who observed the summer solstice in
Iceland and sailed to the polar icecap.
KEYWORDS: Liber de mensura orbis terrae, Etymologiae,
Dicuill, Isidore, Julius Solinuss Collectanea, Pliny the
Younger, Priscians Periegesis, Pytheas of Marseilles,
Britain, Faroes, Iceland, Ireland, Ultima Thule, alphanumeric
computation, calendrical calculation, chiastic and parallel
David Howlett, Dictionary of Medieval Latin from British
Sources, Bodleian Library, Oxford OX1
3117 words, Peritia 13 (1999) 12734. ISBN
MORE ISRAELITE LEARNING IN INSULAR LATIN
ABSTRACT. Further evidence for a knowledge of Hebrew and Aramaic
amongst the learned in the British Isles in the Roman period, and in
the early and later middle ages.
KEYWORDS: Hebrew, Aramaic, Syriac, Arabic, Insular Latin,
epigraphy, grammar, Gildas, Laidcenn, Lorica, Anonymus ad
Cuimnanum, Jews in England.
David Howlett, Dictionary of Medieval Latin from British
Sources, Bodleian Library, Oxford OX1
2089 words, Peritia 13 (1999) 135 41. ISBN
THE SHAPE OF THE DURROW CROSS
ROBERT D. STEVICK
The shape of the Durrow Cross is made up of lines with measures and
distances answerable entirely to ratios incorporating only 1, 2, and
&b.phiv; (the golden section). This paper gives a practical method
for its construction, and discusses the scheme of its proportions.
KEYWORDS: Durrow cross, golden ratio, commodular measures, Irish
crosses, practical geometry, iteration of ratios, Insular
Robert D. Stevick, Box 354330, University of Washington, Seattle
98195, USA. email@example.com
3448 words, Peritia 13 (1999) 14253. ISBN
SPOLIATION OF THE PAST: THE DESTRUCTION OF MONUMENTS AND
TREASURE-HUNTING IN NINETEENTH-CENTURY IRELAND
GILLIAN M. SMITH
ABSTRACT. This article discusses the destruction of archaeological
sites and field monuments in the early nineteenth-century and the fate
of material remains that were uncovered in the process. Ordnance
Survey records of the 1820s and 1830s show that very much of
Irelands medieval inheritance survived the ravages of war
and conquest but began to disappear in the decades before the Great
KEYWORDS: Ordnance Survey, field monuments, prehistory, medieval
artefacts, relics, traditional religion, George Petrie, John
ODonovan, Eugene Curry, Thomas Larcom, antiquarianism.
Gillian M. Smith, Dept of History, NUI, Cork.
6648 words, Peritia 13 (1999) 15472. ISBN
THE TURIN GLOSSES ON MARK: TOWARDS A CULTURAL PROFILE OF THE
ABSTRACT.The Turin, Biblioteca Nazionale Universitaria, F. IV.1,
fasc. 7, Old-Irish glosses on a commentary on Mark are described in
regard to nature and content, and especially errors and anomalies, and
the Glossators sources and possible knowledge of
Greek. Allowance is made for the Glossators originality. An
analysis of the data is then presented, dealing with the identity of
the Glossator and his cultural profile. Auxerre in the latter half of
the ninth century is proposed as a plausible setting.
KEYWORDS: Old-Irish glosses, macaronic text, Greek, Heiric of
Auxerre, scriptural exegesis, exegetical errors and anomalies, murex,
purple, céle Dé, Irish on continent, baptism,
confirmation, configuration of the cross.
Michael Cahill, Dept Theology, Duquesne University,
Pittsburgh,PA 15282, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
8029 words, Peritia 13 (1999) 15676. ISBN
ULYSSES AND THE JUDGE OF TRUTH: SOURCES AND MEANINGS IN THE IRISH
ABSTRACT. The medieval Merugud Uilixis meic Leirtis is a
highly original adaptation of the Odyssey. Evidence for
Irelands indebtedness to classical learning, it is also a
showcase for the interaction between oral and written tradition in
medieval Ireland: the Odyssean framework has been skilfully combined
with an international folktale still popular in Ireland. This article
explores the storys classical background and its folktale
component. Finally, it directs attention to the anonymous author, his
use of sources and the meaning he gave the tale.
KEYWORDS: Irish saga, Merugud Uilixis meic Leirtis,
classical learning, Homer, Odyssey, Vergil, Aeneid,
voyage literature, immrama, allegory, eschatology, folktale, AT
910B, Gesta Romanorum, Ruodlieb.
Barbara Hillers, Celtic Department, University of Edinburgh, 19
George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9LD. email@example.com
13994 words, Peritia 13 (1999) 194223. ISBN
OMENS, ORDEALS AND ORACLES: ON DEMONS AND WEAPONS IN EARLY IRISH
ABSTRACT. The account of a sword ritual in Serglige Con
Culainn involves references to two different kinds of divination,
reflected in two consecutive sentences in the text: the first
describes the ritual as an ordeal, the second as an oracle. The
supernatural source of the oracle is identified as demons
by the text. It is here argued that the religious and literary
background of these demons is formed by certain types of supernatural
battle creature, especially the Irish war goddesses.
KEYWORDS: divination, omens, oracles, ordeals, prophecy, demons,
war goddesses, Furies, lamia, Lilith, weapons, Semitic mythology,
Classical mythology, Irish glosses, medieval Irish literature, Jerome,
Eriugena, Isaiah, Aeneid, Thebaid, Pharsalia,
Serglige Con Culainn, Cath Maige Tuired, Táin
bó Cúailnge, Brislech mór Maige
Muirthemne, Togail na Tebe, In cath catharda.
Jacqueline Borsje, School of Celtic Studies, DIAS, 10 Burlington
Road, Dublin 4. firstname.lastname@example.org.
7523 words, Peritia 13 (1999) 22448. ISBN
TÁNAISE RÍG: THE EARLIEST EVIDENCE
ABSTRACT. The Rule of the master shows numerous signs of
Irish influence, as well as instances of Lombard-Latin vocabulary,
suggesting that it was composed, not before Benedict, but at the
Columbanian monastery of Bobbio in northern Italy in the seventh
century. It also uses the term secundarius to mean a
designated successor, a usage familiar from the Life of Alfred
and comparable to the Irish tánaise ríg,
confirming the antiquity of the concept and even suggesting that it
may have been known as early as the time of Columbanus (ob. 615).
KEYWORDS: Rule of the Master, monastic rules, Benedict of
Nursia, Basil, Columbanus, Bobbio, equinox, liturgy,
secundarius, ætheling, tánaise
Marilyn Dunn, Department of History (Medieval),University of
Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ. email@example.com..uk
1809 words, Peritia 13 (1999) 24954. ISBN
THE SO-CALLED OMISSION OF THE BAPTISMAL FORMULA IN THE ORDER OF
BAPTISM IN THE STOWE MISSAL
VICTOR DE WAAL
ABSTRACT. A discussion of the ordo baptismi in the early
medieval Irish church, leading to the conclusion that its baptism
represented the survival of Early Christian usages.
KEYWORDS: ordo baptismi, baptism, adult baptism, immersion,
ritual, cathecumenate, Stowe Missal.
Victor de Waal, The Skreen, Erwood, Builth Wells, Powys, LD2
1503 words, Peritia 13 (1999) 25558. ISBN
REICLÉS IN THE IRISH ANNALS TO AD 1200
ABSTRACT. This paper offers a detailed discussion of the
annalistic evidence for the Early Medieval church type,
reiclés, in an attempt to establish its true nature and
its role in the Irish church in the twelfth century and before.
KEYWORDS: Irish church, Early Medieval church, church types,
reliquary churches, relics, hagiography, pilgrimage, Armagh, Kildare,
Clonmacnoise, Derry, Kells.
Aidan Macdonald, Department of Archaeology,University College,
8237 words, Peritia 13 (1999) 25975. ISBN
CHURCH AND STATE IN ANGEVIN IRELAND
W. L. WARREN
ABSTRACT. An examination of the ecclesiastical policy of the first
Angevin kings in Ireland suggests that the period 1171-1216
constitutes a distinct phase in Irish history characterised by a
desire on the part of Henry II and king John to pursue a policy of
peaceful co-existence between Irish and Anglo-Norman, rather than
division and competition; a more colonial attitude becomes apparent
during the minority of Henry III.
KEYWORDS: Irish church, Anglo-Irish relations, Henry II, king of
England, John, king of England, episcopal elections, Ailbe (Albinus)
Ua Máel Muaid, bishop of Ferns, Echdhonn (Eugenius) Mac Gilla
Uidir, archbishop of Armagh, Aubrey Gwynn.
6927 words, Peritia 13 (1999) 27691. ISBN
WAITING FOR THE REGISTRAR: APPEAL AT THE METROPOLITAN COURT OF
M. A. SUGHI
ABSTRACT. The presentation of an appeal to a metropolitan court is
an important aspect of medieval ecclesiastical law. Here it is treated
in three stages with reference to the Armagh registers: (i) the
recipient of the appeal in canon law; (ii) the degree to which the
principles of universal canon law, ius commune, were observed
at Armagh; and (iii) the preliminaries of a case of appeal (up to its
presentation) as reconstructed from the Armagh registers in the
metropolitan court of Armagh. Though technical, the matters throws
vivid new light on aspects of Irish life at the end of the middle
KEYWORDS: Armagh, archbishop Octavian, registrar, metropolitan
registers, canon law, ius commune, church courts, appeal,
ecclesiastical litigation, late medieval church, archiepiscopal
Mario A. Sughi, 15 Greenmount Lane, Dublin 12.
7095 words, Peritia 13 (1999) 292308. IBN
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