The Irish TIMES Full Energy System Modelling Project is the only project of its kind in Ireland and investigates how the energy system in Ireland can meet emission reduction targets out to the year 2050.

Lead PI:                           Dr. Brian Ó Gallachóir 

Senior Post Doctorate:   Dr. Paul Deane
PhD Student:                   Mr.Alessandro Chiodi

Project Partner:              Economic and Social Research Institute 

TIMES Training:              Maurizio Gargiulo

Project Reference:          EPA CCRP 2008 3.1

Funded by:                       EPA and SEAI 
Project Timeframe:         2009-2013 ‌

UCC secured research funding for a two year project entitled “Energy Modelling – Irish TIMES” to build an energy systems model for Ireland. The project will build on the Energy Policy and Modelling research carried out by UCC’s Sustainable Energy Research Group and is funded by the Environmental Protection Agency under the Climate Change Research Programme 2007 – 2013 (with co-funding from Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland). ESRI are collaborating on the project building projections of Ireland's economy to 2050. Maurizio Gargiulo is providing TIMES training to build capacity within Ireland.

 

The Irish TIMES research project has developed, calibrate, test and run a (partial equilibrium) energy system optimisation model for Ireland. The Irish TIMES (The Integrated MARKAL and EFOM System) model draws on MARKAL / TIMES family of modelling tools currently being used in 177 institutions 69 countries. This project draws on and contribute to the wealth of international research activity through the International Energy Agency ETSAP (Energy Technology Systems Systems Programme).

 

Irish TIMES provides a range of energy system configurations for Ireland that will deliver projected energy demand requirements optimised to least cost and subject to a range of policy constraints for the period out to 2050. It provides a means of testing energy policy choices and scenarios, and predicting implications for the Irish economy (prices, output, employment etc.), for Ireland’s energy mix and energy dependence, and for the environment, including greenhouse gas emissions. It is being used to both examine baseline projections, and to assess the implications of emerging technologies and mobilising alternative policy choices such as carbon mitigation strategies.

 

The widest current applications of TIMES are related to the analysis of policies designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from energy and materials consumption. Since the framework depicts individual technologies, it is particularly useful for evaluating policies that promote the use of technologies of greater efficiency in energy or materials, or the development and use of new technologies. It provides a means of quantifying the economic cost associated with a range of climate mitigation strategies and the impacts of climate change policies on economic growth. 

 

This research provides the capability to answer questions on the energy sector and predict scenarios that wer not previously feasible in Ireland. The scenarios that the project is focussing include the following

 

1) How can Ireland meet the 16% RES target by 2020 in a least cost way? (including what are the optimal modal targets, i.e. RES-E, RES-T and RES-H and how do these compare with those in Ireland's NREAP)

2) How can Ireland's meet the 20% GHG emissions reduction target for non-ETS sectors by 2020

3) What energy technologies will deliver an 80% emissions reduction target by 2050 relative to 1990 levels?

4) If agriculture related GHG emissions grow in line with Food Harvest 2020 projections, what are the implications for Ireland's energy system with respect to 2020 and 2050 targets?

 

A key challenge for Ireland is the overcoming the insufficient level of detail and robustness in national energy projections and energy-related emissions projections in order to effectively respond to the increasing complexity of policy decisions (current pressing examples include separating policies and measures for emissions trading and non-emissions sectors, different scenarios for different assumptions regarding mitigation within agriculture, etc.).

 

The project is co-ordinated by Dr. Brian Ó Gallachóir Director of Energy Policy and Modelling in UCC’s Sustainable Energy Research Group. The research builds on his work in energy trends analysis, energy forecasting, energy policy research and bottom up techno-economic modelling of energy demand and supply. Dr. Ó Gallachóir is a member of the Technical Analysis Steering Group on Climate Change and Energy Security.  He represents Ireland on the International Energy Agency Executive Committee for the Energy Technology Systems Analysis Programme and on EU DGTREN’s Energy Economists’ Working Group. He is an elected member of the Royal Irish Academy Climate Change Committee. He also provides strategic advice to Sustainable Energy Ireland’s Energy Policy Statistical Support Unit (EPSSU) and Energy Modelling Group.

Irish TIMES

The Irish TIMES model is a linear optimisation model with an objective function to minimise total system cost (maximizes the total discounted surplus) subject to imposed constraints. Mathematical equations describe the relationships and interaction between the many technologies, drivers and commodities in Irish TIMES. While it is tempting to think of Irish TIMES as a simple ‘merit type’ model that chooses technologies simply from the least expensive to the most expensive to meet certain demands this is an oversimplification that leads to an incorrect understanding of the model value and dynamics.  The richness of the Irish TIMES model is that it optimises across all sectors of the energy system for the full horizon and thus captures the interaction between sectors. The model simultaneously solves for the least cost solution subject to emission constraints, resource potentials, technology costs, technology activity and capability to meet individual energy service demands. In this way Irish TIMES allows technologies to compete both horizontally across different energy sectors and vertically through the time horizon of the model.  

 

Overview of TIMES Modelling Tool

The TIMES (The Integrated MARKAL-EFOM System) model generator was developed as part of the IEA-ETSAP (Energy Technology Systems Analysis Program), an international community which uses long term energy scenarios to conduct in-depth energy and environmental analyses (Loulou et al., 2004). The TIMES software combines two different, but complementary, systematic approaches to modelling energy: a technical engineering approach and an economic approach (Gargiulo and Ó Gallachóir, 2013). TIMES is a technology rich, bottom-up model generator, which uses linear-programming to produce a least-cost energy system, optimized according to a number of user constraints, over medium to long-term time horizons. In a nutshell, TIMES is used for, “the exploration of possible energy futures based on contrasted scenarios” (Loulou et al., 2005).

The Irish TIMES model was originally extracted from the Pan European TIMES (PET) model and then updated with improved data based on much extensive local knowledge (Ó Gallachóir et al., 2012). The Pan European Times (PET) Model is a multi-regional TIMES model of Europe built comprised of 36 European regions (EU27, Iceland, Norway, Switzerland, and six Balkan countries) (Gargiulo and Ó Gallachoir, 2013). The PET model from which the Ireland sub-model was taken was calibrated with 2005 Eurostat as a base year. The Irish TIMES project has focused on the Irish energy system and the potential for Ireland to i) increase renewable energy penetration in line with targets to 2020, ii) meet GHG emissions reduction targets in the period to 2020 and iii) transition to a low carbon economy within the longer term to 2050 (Ó Gallachóir et al., 2012).

Model structure

TIMES models encompass all the steps from primary resources through the chain of processes that transform, transport, distribute and convert energy into the supply of energy services demanded by energy consumers (Loulou et al., 2005). On the energy supply-side, it comprises fuel mining, primary and secondary production, and exogenous import and export. The “agents” of the energy supply-side are the “producers”. Through various energy carriers, energy is delivered to the demand-side, which is structured sectorally into residential, commercial, agricultural, transport and industrial sectors. The “agents” of the energy demand-side are the “consumers”. The mathematical, economic and engineering relationships between these energy “producers” and “consumers” is the basis underpinning TIMES models.

All TIMES models are constructed from three basic entities (Loulou et al., 2005):

Technologies

Technologies (also called processes) are representations of physical devices that transform commodities into other commodities. Processes may be primary sources of commodities (e.g. mining processes, import processes), or transformation activities such as conversion plants that produce electricity, energy-processing plants such as refineries, end-use demand devices such as cars and heating systems, etc.

Commodities

Commodities (including fuels) are energy carriers, energy services, materials, monetary flows, and emissions; a commodity is either produced or consumed by some technology.

Commodity flows

Commodity flows are the links between processes and commodities (for example electricity generation from wind). A flow is of the same nature as a commodity but is attached to a particular process, and represents one input or one output of that process.

These three entities are used to build an energy system that characterizes the country or region in question. All TIMES models have a reference energy system, which is a basic model of the energy system before it is substantially changed either for a particular region or for a particular scenario. The Irish TIMES reference energy system, which represents the Irish energy system in 2005 and its possible long-term evolution (Ó Gallachóir et al., 2012) is shown in Figure 1. The blocks are the technologies, the writing outside the blocks (e.g. OIL, GAS, COA, ELC) are the commodities and the lines connecting the blocks are the commodity flows.

 

 Schematic of processes and commodities in Irish TIMES; source: (Ó Gallachóir et al., 2012)

Figure 1: Schematic of processes and commodities in Irish TIMES; source: (Ó Gallachóir et al., 2012)

 

Inputs

There are a large number of exogenous inputs to the Irish TIMES model. Many of these are characterizations of technology or commodity entities. There are also a number of endogenous inputs that are calculated by Irish TIMES and which are used in the final calculations for the model outputs. These inputs are described below.

Technologies

In the Irish TIMES model, there are more than 1350 technologies for the supply-side and demand-side sectors of the economy (Ó Gallachóir et al., 2012). Each of these technologies has detailed technical parameters that can be changed and set by the user; some of these parameters include technology efficiency (e.g. heat rates, learning curves), technology lifetime, emission factors (CO2 and non-CO2) and availability. The data sources for most of these technologies are the IEA databases that were used to build the reference energy system. For Irish TIMES, the technologies parameters were all reviewed and revised, as appropriate, for Irish conditions. Each of these technologies also has associated costs (e.g. capital costs, O&M costs, discount rates). In most instances, these costs are input in the form of curves, i.e. as elasticities and as such, they are described as demand curves in that they can meet varying levels of energy demand at varying levels of cost (Loulou et al., 2005).

Resource potential and prices

The resource potential applies mostly to commodities and supply curves, i.e. what is the cost of each commodity at various levels of supply. The resource potential also applies to technologies, particular renewable energy technologies and their resource. For example, there is a limit to the amount of onshore wind power that can be constructed in Ireland. The commodity supply curves and renewable resource for Irish TIMES have been carefully scrutinized and updated based on most recently available data, local knowledge or known technical limits (Ó Gallachóir et al., 2012).

Projections for future fuel prices for key fuel commodities (e.g. coal, oil and gas) are taken from IEA world energy outlook  (IEA, 2012).  

Given the importance of renewable energy for the achievement of mitigation targets, Ireland’s energy potentials and costs are based on the most recently available data. The total resource capacity limit for domestic bioenergy has been set at 1,964 ktoe for the year 2020 and at 3,747 ktoe by 2050, based on the estimates from Clancy M. et al., 2013; Smyth et al., 2010 and Philips, 2011. The upper capacity limit for other renewable resources such onshore and offshore wind energy, ocean and hydro energy are summarized in Ó Gallachóir et al., 2012 and Chiodi et al., 2013. The use of geothermal energy in Ireland is limited only to small installations in the residential and services sector mostly for space and water heating purposes. Because solar and geothermal energy contribute marginally to scenarios outputs, no maximum potentials have been provided in the model.

The cost assumptions for domestic bioenergy commodities are based on McEniry et al., 2011 for biogas from grass, Kent et al. 2011 for forestry, Clancy D. et al. 2008 for willow and miscanthus crops and Clancy M. et al. 2013 for wheat crops. Cost estimates on bioenergy imports are based on an SEAI report by Clancy M. et al., 2013. Cost assumptions for bulk renewable energy technologies were recently updated based on studies by DECC (Parsons Brinckerhoff 2011 and Radov D et al., 2012) (for wind energy) and Parsons Brinckerhoff 2012 (for solar). Other model reviews focused on conventional generation technologies of heating technologies are based on the values from (Parsons Brinckerhoff 2009).

Electricity prices are calculated endogenously in the model.

Macro-economic drivers

Key data driving the Irish TIMES model are the macro-economic projections of GDP, GNP, private income, population and number of households that is generated using the Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI) long-term macro-economic model. These parameters are used to generate energy service demand parameters, which are the key quantities that the Irish TIMES model must produce an energy system to satisfy. In total, there are 60 different types of energy services for the transport, residential, agricultural, commercial, industry and non-energy sectors. Some examples include residential space heating (peta-joules, PJ), commercial refrigeration (PJ), industry iron & steel (millions of tonnes, Mt), transport car distance (millions of passenger kilometres, Mpkm) and transport road freight (millions of tonne kilometres, Mtkm). For each modelling period out to 2050, energy service demand parameters are input and the Irish TIMES model must serve these parameters at least cost.

Scenarios

The principle insights generated from Irish TIMES are achieved through scenario analysis. A reference energy scenario is generated first by running the model in the absence of any policy constraints. This results from the reference scenario are not normally totally aligned to national energy forecasts (generated by simulating future energy demand and supply), mainly because TIMES optimizes the energy systems providing a least cost solution.

A second scenario is then established by imposing a (single of many) policy constraint on the model (e.g. minimum share of renewable energy, maximum amount of GHG emissions or minimum level of energy security) and the model generates a different least cost energy system with different technology and fuel choices. When the results are compared with those from the reference scenario, the different technology choices can be identified that deliver the policy constraint at least cost (Ó Gallachóir et al., 2012).

In the Irish TIMES model, there are two key modelling time-horizons: 2005-2020 and 2005-2050.

Functionality

Once all the inputs, constraints and scenarios have been put in place, the model will attempt to solve and determine the energy system that meets the energy service demands over the entire time horizon at least cost. It does this by simultaneously making equipment investment decisions and operating, primary energy supply, and energy trade decisions, by region. Irish TIMES assumes perfect foresight, which is to say that all investment decisions are made in each period with full knowledge of future events. It optimizes horizontally (across all sectors) and vertically (across all time periods for which the limit is imposed).

The results will be the optimal mix of technologies and fuels at each period, together with the associated emissions to meet the demand. The model configures the production and consumption of commodities (i.e. fuels, materials, and energy services) and their prices; when the model matches supply with demand, i.e. energy producers with energy consumers, it is said to be in equilibrium. Mathematically, this means that model maximizes the producer and consumer surplus. The model is set up such that the price of producing a commodity affects the demand for that commodity, while at the same time the demand affects the commodity’s price. A market is said to have reached an equilibrium at prices p and quantities q when no consumer wishes to purchase less than q and no producer wishes to produce more than q at price p. When all markets are in equilibrium the total economic surplus is maximized (i.e. the sum of producers’ and consumers’ surpluses)(Loulou et al., 2005). This is represented graphically in Figure 2.

 

Achieving market equilibrium in TIMES; source: (Loulou et al., 2005)

Figure 2: Achieving market equilibrium in TIMES; source: (Loulou et al., 2005)

 

Outputs

The main output Irish TIMES are energy system configurations, which meet the end-use energy service demands at least cost while also adhering to the various constraints (e.g 80% emissions reduction, 40% renewable electricity penetration). In the first instance, Irish TIMES model addresses the question: is the target feasible? If an energy system is possible, it can then be examined, at what cost? The model outputs are energy flows, energy commodity prices, GHG emissions, capacities of technologies, energy costs and marginal emissions abatement costs. Figure 3 has a schematic of the Irish TIMES model along with outgoing white block arrows that show the model outputs.

 

Schematic of TIMES inputs and outputs; source: (Remme et al., 2001)

Figure 3: Schematic of TIMES inputs and outputs; source: (Remme et al., 2001)

Strengths

Something of the usefulness (and strength) of TIMES can be gleaned from its popularity: it is currently in use in over 70 countries. A key characteristic of this modelling tool is that it maintained, improved and updated through a collaborative research initiative co-ordinated by the International Energy Agency Energy Technology Systems Programme (IEA-ETSAP). The main “selling point” of TIMES is that it combines a detailed technology rich database with an economically optimizing solver. It is able to generate robust energy policy scenarios over long time horizons and it is able to offer strategic insight into long-term policy formation. This is especially important for the energy sector, which has such large capital investments with long project lifetimes.

The challenge of de-carbonizing the energy system is an enormous and expensive one so the insight that TIMES gives is unique.

It produces energy pathways over multiple time slices for a long-term time horizon and the solution in the model is in terms of technology choice; it also provides indicative results for the carbon price required to achieve certain reductions which can in turn be useful to inform policy design.

Limitations

Like all energy models, Irish TIMES has a number of limitations. In some instances these are simply limitations born of the structure of the model; they are inevitable based on the way the model is built. In other instances, they could be considered weaknesses and in these cases, work is on going to make improvements:

Macro-economic assumptions: This is a limitation of the model. The results of the scenarios are tied to the assumption and results of the macro-economic model, which by themselves are inherently uncertain. While scenario analysis, by its nature, tries to counteract this uncertainty by producing a range of results, this uncertainty is nevertheless present.

Limited macro-economic feedback: This is a current weakness in the Irish TIMES model: there is currently no feedback between the output of the energy system analysis and the macro-economy.  However, work is ongoing in UCC to develop this feedback response.

Time resolution: For the electricity sector, there are 12 time slices (seasonal, day, night and peak); these are inadequate to capture daily supply and demand curves. For the rest of the TIMES system, there are only seasonal time slices. This is a limitation of the model. It would become computationally unwieldy if the model had to make decade long decision as well as hourly decisions. A working solution to this shortcoming is model soft-linking to more specialized power systems models, which has been pioneered by UCC (Deane et al., 2012).

Behaviour: A further limitation of the Irish TIMES model is the limited capacity to simulate behavioural aspects. This is a limitation of most energy (and indeed macro-economic) models, in that consumer behaviour is generally limited to simple price response and non-price related behaviour in generally very poorly treated.

 

References

Chiodi A., Gargiulo M., Rogan F., Deane J.P., Lavigne D., Rout U.K. and Ó Gallachóir B.P. 2013 Modelling the impacts of challenging 2050 European climate mitigation targets on Ireland's energy system Energy Policy Vol 53 pages 169 – 189

Clancy D, Breen J, Butler AM, Thorne F. The economic viability of biomass crops versus conventional agricultural systems and its potential impact on farm incomes in Ireland.  107th EAAE Seminar "Modelling of Agricultural and Rural Development Policies". January 29th-February 1st, Sevilla, Spain 2008.

Clancy M, Bates J, Barker N, Edberg O, Fitzgerald J, Narkeviciute R, et al. Bioenergy Supply Curves for Ireland 2010 – 2030. . Version 1.0 ed: SEAI & AEA; 2012.

Deane J.P., Chiodi A., Gargiulo M. and Ó Gallachóir B.P. 2012 Soft-linking of a power systems model to and energy systems model. Energy Vol 42, Pages 303-312

Dineen D. and Ó Gallachóir B. P. 2011 Modelling the Impacts of Building Regulations and a Property Bubble on Residential Space and Water Heating. Energy and Buildings Volume 43 Issue 1 Pages 166 - 178

Gargiulo M., Chiodi A., Deane P., Ó Gallachóir B. Impact of economic recession on the costs of climate mitigation. In proceedings of: 12th IAEE European Energy Conference, Energy Challenge and Environmental Sustainability, 9-12 September, Venice, Italy.

Gargiulo, M., Gallachoir, B.O., 2013. Long-term energy models: Principles, characteristics, focus, and limitations. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment 2, 158–177.

Kent T, Kofman PD, Coates E. Harvesting wood for energy Cost-effective woodfuel supply chains in Irish forestry. Available at: <http://www.coford.ie/media/coford/content/publications/projectreports/Harvesting_Wood_low_res_for_web.pdf>. Dublin, Ireland: Coford; 2011.

Howes P, Bates J, Landy M, O’Brien S, Herbert R, Matthews R, et al. UK and Global bioenergy resource. Report to DECC. AEA; 2011.

IEA, 2009. World Energy Outlook 2009 1–698.

Loulou, R., Goldstein, G., Noble, K., 2004. Documentation for the MARKAL Family of Models. ETSAP.

Loulou, R., Remne, U., Kanudia, A., Lehtila, A., Goldstein, G., 2005. Documentation for the TIMES Model - PART I 1–78.

McEniry J, O'Kiely P, Crosson P, Groom E, Murphy JD. The effect of feedstock cost on biofuel cost as exemplified by biomethane production from grass silage. Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining. 2011;5(6):670-82.

Ó Gallachóir, B.P., Chiodi, A., Gargiulo, M., Lavigne, D., Rout, U.K., 2012. Irish TIMES Energy Systems Model (No. 24). EPA.

Parsons Brinckerhoff. Electricity Generation Cost Model - 2011 Update. Revision 1. London, UK: Prepared for Department of Energy and Climate Change; 2011.

Parsons Brinckerhoff. Solar PV  cost update. London, UK: Prepared for Department of Energy and Climate Change; 2012.

Phillips H. All Ireland Roundwood Production Forecast 2011-2028. Dublin, Ireland: COFORD, Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food; 2011.

Radov D, Klevnäs P, Hanif A, Abu-Ebid M, Barker N, Stambaugh J. The UK Supply Curve for Renewable Heat. London, UK: Study prepared from NERA Economic Consulting and AEA for the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC); 2009.

Radov D, Klevnäs P, Hanif A, Abu-Ebid M, Barker N, Stambaugh J. The UK Supply Curve for Renewable Heat. London, UK: Study prepared from NERA Economic Consulting and AEA for the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC); 2009.

Remme U., Goldstein G.A., Schellmann U., Schlenzig C., 2001 MESAP/TIMES – advanced decision support for energy and environmental planning, In P. Chamoni, R. Leisten, A. Martin, J. Minnemann, H. Stadtler (Eds.), Operations Research Proceedings 2001. Selected Papers of the International Conference on Operations Research (OR 2001), 3–5 September, Springer, Duisburg, Germany (2001), pp. 59–66

Smyth BM, Ó Gallachóir BP, Korres NE, Murphy JD. Can we meet targets for biofuels and renewable energy in transport given the constraints imposed by policy in agriculture and energy? Journal of Cleaner Production. 2010;18(16-17):1671-85.

VGB Powertech. Investment and Operation Cost Figures – Generation Portfolio. Survey 2011. Essen, Germany2011.

 

 

The following pdf documents and Excel Spreadsheets give an overview of the input assumptions in Irish TIMES for the following sectors.

These documents and spreadsheets are updated periodally. 

Sectorial Description Document 

Model Inputs

 

Publications listed here are specific to the Irish TIMES Energy Modelling Project. For a full list of complete energy modelling related publication please also see Publications

    1. Chiodi A., Deane J.P., Gargiulo M. and Ó Gallachóir B. P. 2011 Modelling Electricity Generation - Comparing Results From a Power Systems Model and an Energy Systems model, Proc International Energy Workshop Stanford July 6 -9 2011, Stanford CA.
    2. Ó Gallachóir B. P.,Chiodi A. and Gargiulo M. 2011 Long Term Energy Scenarios for Ireland – the role of ocean energy . Proceedings of Second Workshop on Economics of Ocean and Marine Renewable Energy June 13 2011, Cork Ireland.
    3. Daly H.E., Rogan F. and Ó Gallachóir B.P. 2011 Modelling future private car energy demand using two techno-economic approaches. Proceedings of the European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (eceee) Summer School, 6–11 June 2011,?Belambra Presqu'île de Giens, France.
    4. Chiodi A., Lavigne D., Gargiulo M. and Ó Gallachóir B. P. 2011 Long term scenarios of Ireland's energy using the TIMES model. Presentation to Energy and Emissions Scenario, DIT, Dublin April 8 2011.
    5. Ó Gallachóir B. P. 2011 Energy Scenarios to 2050. Presentation to Engineers Ireland Feb 2 2011 Dublin Ireland.
    6. Ó Gallachóir B. P. 2011 Energy Scenarios to 2050 and the Climate Change Response Bill. Presentation to Technical Analysis Steering Group on Energy Security and Climate Change Jan 19 2011 Dublin Ireland.
    7. Ó Gallachóir B. P., Lavigne D., Rout U. K., Chiodi A. and Gargiulo M. 2010 Irish TIMES Energy scenariosPresentation to Eirgrid Dec 17 2010 Dublin Ireland.
    8. Ó Gallachóir B. P. 2010 Energy Scenarios to 2020 and 2050. Presentation to IBEC Energy Policy Committee Dec 8 2010 Dublin Ireland.
    9. Ó Gallachóir B. P. Mitigating Climate Change - the size of the challenge.  Proceedings UCC Public academy Workshop on Communicating Climate Change Dec 3 2010
    10. Ó Gallachóir B. P., Lavigne D., Gargiulo M., Chiodi A. and Rout U. K., 2010 Meeting Ireland’s Ambitious 2050 GHG Target Proceedings International Conference on Energy Systems Modelling Addressing Climate Change and Energy Security Nov 15 2010, UCC, Cork
    11. Chiodi A. and Ó Gallachóir B. P. 2010 Energy scenarios for Ireland to 2050 using TIMES PosterPresentation at International Conference on Energy Systems Modelling Addressing Climate Change and Energy Security Nov 15 2010, UCC, Cork.
    12. Doyle D. and Ó Gallachóir B. P. 2010 Energy Systems Modelling of NEI Industry Sub SectorsPosterPresentation at International Conference on Energy Systems Modelling Addressing Climate Change and Energy Security Nov 15 2010, UCC, Cork.
    13. Lavigne D., Rout U. K. and Ó Gallachóir B. P. 2010 Irish TIMES Energy Model PosterPresentation at International Conference on Energy Systems Modelling Addressing Climate Change and Energy Security Nov 15 2010, UCC, Cork.
    14. Ó Gallachóir B. P., Lavigne D., Chiodi A. and Gargiulo M. 2010 La gestion des emissions des gaz à effet de serre en Irlande Proceedings 54e congres de l’Association Mathématique du Quebec 2010 Oct 22 - 24 2010, Cégep de Rimouski, Quebec, Canada.
    15. Ó Gallachóir B. P., Lavigne D., Rout U. K., Chiodi A. and Gargiulo M. 2010 Reaching CO2 Emissions Reduction Targets: The case of Ireland Proceedings Decision Analysis and Sustainable Development Conference Sept 27 - 28 2010, University of Montreal, Canada.
    16. Ó Gallachóir B. P. 2010 Irish TIMES 20% NETS Reduction Scenario. Presentation to Technical Analysis Steering Group on Energy Security and Climate Change July 29 2010 Dublin Ireland.
    17. Ó Gallachóir B. P., Rout U. K., Lavigne D., Chiodi A. and Gargiulo M. 2010 Modelling Ambitious CO2 Reduction Targets for Non-ETS Sectors. Proceedings International Energy Workshop 2010 June 20 – 23 2010, Stockholm.
    18. Ó Gallachóir B. P. Climate Change Mitigation - the Energy Dimension.  Proceedings EPA Climate Change Research Conference June 30 2010
    19. Ó Gallachóir B. P., Lavigne D., Rout U. K., Chiodi A. and Gargiulo M. How do we meet Ambitious Renewable Energy Targets in an Optimal Manner? Proceedings International Energy Agency ETSAP Meeting June 24 2010.
    20. Ó Gallachóir B.P. 2010 Role of Engineering in Adressing Climate Change. Proceedings Engineers' Ireland 2010 Conference, Cork April 22 - 23 2010.
    21. Ó Gallachóir B. P., Rout U. K. and Chiodi A. 2010 Ocean Energy in Irish TIMES.  Proceedings of Workshop on Economics of Ocean and Marine Renewable Energy April 21 Cork Ireland.
    22. Ó Gallachóir B. P. 2010 Irish TIMES Energy Modelling Project. Presentation to Technical Analysis Steering Group on Energy Security and Climate Change March 16 2010 Dublin Ireland.
    23. Ó Gallachóir B. P., Lavigne D., Rout U. K., Gargiulo M. and Kanudia A. 2010 Building Irish TIMES from PET Ireland. Joint TERI ETSAP Workshop on Energy Modelling Tools & Techniques to Address Sustainable Development & Climate Change. New Delhi, India Jan 20 – 22 2010.
    24. Ó Gallachóir B. P., Lavigne D. and Rout U. K. 2009 The Irish TIMES Energy Modelling Project. Third Workshop on Game Theory in Energy, Resources and Environment Dec 10 - 11 2009 Montreal
    25. Ó Gallachóir B. P. 2009 Irish TIMES Energy Model. Proceedings of EPA Modelling Workshop May 20 2009

The Sankey diagram below show scenario results from the Irish-TIMES energy systems model.

The visualisation is interactive. Hover your mouse over nodes and paths for more information.

Click and Drag nodes (boxes) to move and compare scale of energy flows.

Please select a scenario result from the drop down menu below.

IRE_2012 - Shows the current Irish energy system based on SEAI and IEA data.

BAU2050 - Shows the business as usual energy system scenario for 2050.

CO2-80_2050 - Shows the 80% CO2 emissions reduction target energy system scenario for 2050. 

CO2-95_2050 - Shows the 95% CO2 emissions reduction target energy system scenario for 2050.

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