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1. In the extracts quoted in the original Irish from the primary sources I have made no effort to standardise or modernise the spelling but quoted them as found in these sources.
2. J. L.Kallen, `Language and Ethnic Identity: the Irish Language in the United States', in L. MacMathuna and D. Singleton (ed) Language across Cultures (Dublin 1983); K. A. Miller, Emigrants and Exiles (Oxford 1985); K. E. Nilsen, `Thinking of Monday: The Irish Speakers of Portland, Maine', in Éire/Ireland 25 (1991) 6-19.
3. T. W. Idhe (ed) The Irish Language in the United States: An Historical, Sociolinguistic and Applied Linguistic Survey (Westport, CT; London 1994).
4. J. L. Kallen, `Irish as an American Ethnic Language', in Idhe (ed) The Irish Language in the United States, 31.
5. Miller, 297.
6. ibid, 350.
7. ibid, 298.
8. I. D. Rupp, History of Northampton, Lehigh, Monroe, Carbon, and Schuylkill Counties (Lancaster, PA 1845), 18.
9. D. Clark, `Muted Heritage: Gaelic in an American City', Éire/Ireland 6 (1971), 4-5; E. J. Walsh, `The Language Problems of Irish Emigrants at the time of the Great Famine', St. Meinrad Essays 12 (1959), 72.
10. Walsh, 71.
11. Miller, 298.
12. Kallen, `Irish as an American Ethnic Language', 34.
13. L. McGowan, `The Irish Language in America', in Idhe (ed) The Irish Language in the United States, 6.
14. An Gaodhal, May 1880, 800.
15. An Gaodhal, March 1888, 776.
16. J. Callaghan, `The Irish Language in Pennsylvania', in Idhe (ed) The Irish Language in the United States, 22.
17. Irish World, 25 May 1872, 5.
18. McGowan `The Irish Language in America', 6.
19. An Gaodhal, January 1886, 512.
20. An Gaodhal, April 1884, 341.
21. An Gaodhal, July 1894, 392.
22. An Gaodhal, July 1894, 392.
23. An Gaodhal, April 1884, 341.
24. An Gaodhal, July 1884, 369.
25. An Gaodhal, May 1884, 347.
26. An Gaodhal, January 1886, 522.
27. An Gaodhal, March 1883, 198: `These people don't come near the Irish schools for fear that their neighbours would recognise them'.
28. The Freeman's Journal, 7 December 1883, 5.
29. An Gaodhal, March 1890, 920.
30. F. Uí Fhlannagáin, `Michael O Lochain agus an Gaodhal', An Clochomhar (1990) 23.
31. An Gaodhal, December 1882, 161.
32. An Gaodhal, February 1884, 309: `I implore God, that the time will come, and that it will not be long, when the Gael will have the power to enact a speedy and effective revenge on that cursed group'.
33. An Gaodhal, July 1882, 90.
34. An Gaodhal, September 1882, 126.
35. An Gaodhal, October 1882, 129.
36. An Gaodhal, June 1882, 88.
37. An Gaodhal, September 1883, 251-2.
38. An Gaodhal, June 1882, 83: `Our sweet and harmonious language'; `I am a young man without much knowledge of the language of my native land, and I am ashamed to admit it, and I am afraid that this will not be easily understood, but I will make my best effort to be clear'.
39. An Gaodhal, September 1883, 253.
41. An Gaodhal, October 1883, 266: `They are ashamed'; and `There are enough men and women here who can't speak two words of English correctly but won't speak Irish for fear that the Yankees would be listening'.
42. An Gaodhal, June 1884, 360: `Most Shoneens are ashamed to speak their own language at all. They think that the language of their forefathers is too vulgar for them. Most of them came to this country with rags on their back, and Irish is the first language that they heard, but as soon as they are rich, they have no respect for Irish, or for their own country'.
43. Miller, 418.
44. An Gaodhal, October 1883, 226: `Most Irish people in this country have no respect for Irish, the language of their people! And they will say that it is a dead language!'
45. An Gaodhal, May 1884, 350: `There are more people in this city that understand Irish than anywhere else, but, alas, it's little the interest they have in the cause of Irish'.
46. An Gaodhal, May 1884, 348.
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