In the kingdom of Ireland, there be three kinde of Irish, to witauncient Irish, English Irish and mixt Irish.
The aunciente Irish descend from the Spaniards whoe, above 1000 yeares agoe got that kingdome from the Graecians, and governed it with just and holie lawes, being holpen thereon by the doctrine and holynes of many holy miraculous and learned men of there owne, until the comeing of the Danes, the which by overthrowing and destroying churches and Universityes in that island, broughte in much barbaritie, and evill customes, with tyranny, after which there followed, even in the Irish themselves sinnes and offences against God, civil wars, and domesticall hatred, murthers, &c.
Notable was the wickednesse of Dermitius king of Leynster, one of the five kynges of Ireland, who took away by force the wife of O'Roarke, another king of the same island, for which the said Dermitius being pursued by O'Roarke, was fayne to fly the land, and to crave aide of Henry the second King of Englande, whoe at this time was in France, and gave free libertye to all his subjectes, that voluntarilie would, to helpe Dermetius to recover his lost kingdome, whereupon, with ayde of certaine of the king of Englands subjectes, he regained his owne, and laied hold on other men's lands besides.
Henry the second seeing the Irish divided amongst themselves by a false relation (as they say) to Pope Adrian the fourth, an Englishman; obtained of his holynes lycense to conquer the land, and to be collector of the church rentes, which the see Apostolicke had in Ireland, with the title of Lord of Ireland: But after the kings of Englande forsaking the true fayth have by their own proper authoritie intitled themselves Kings of Ireland.
These Englysh which at first passed over into Ireland with Dermitius, and others alsothat came after are divided into two sortes.
The chief nobility and gentlemen married with the daughters of the ancyent Irish, and so have their discentes down after them in such sort, that those whoe doe now inherite have equallie as much of the Irish bloud as of the Englishe, and in their language habite and custome doe conforme themselves for the most part with the Irish, and these are they whom I call mixt Irish. Such are the earles of Kildare, Desmond, Clenrickard, Ormonde, Viscount Barry, Roche, &c.
The Englishe that did not marry with the auncyent Irish, not took hold either of their customes, manners or language, but kept their former English stille, these are called English-Irished, and are all for the most part marchants, men of trade in all the cities and townes of Ireland.
There are also some knightes and gentlemen, which live in the county of East Meath and about Dublin and in the counties that the Irish call the pale.
These severall kindes of Irish agree all in one thing, to wit, in being true Catholickes, and children of the church of Rome; yet doe they differ in their manner of living, natural inclinations and desires to have princes and lawes over them, every one desireing his naturall inclination, and imitating his predecessors. And therefore, the auncient Irish, as these that are descended from the Spanyards, desire alwayes to be governed by the kings of Spayne and their successors, and beare greate affection and love to the Spanish nation. Contrarywise greate hate and enmity to their enemyes, and in sharpnes of wit and valour in warr are altogether like unto the Spaniard.
The Englished-Irish follow the inclination of the English, and affect the laws, manners and government, which they had first from them; and if the king of England would grant them libertee of conscience, or permitt to keepe in their houses priestes to say Masse privately and minister the holy sacraments, they would be right glad that there should be noe change of lawes at all in Ireland, nor of government of King, and amongst these sortes (unlesse there be some od ecclesiasticall men to whom the pope hath assigned some benefice or church rent) there is none that careth much whether there be ever made restitution of church livings or not, or whether the church obtain her publick government; nay many of them have no other landes nor liveinge, but such as were taken from the church when the kings of Englande withdrew themselves from her obedience.
The mixt Irish as their bloud is mingled with the English and Irish, so their inclynations and manners of life doe inclyne generally: for notwithstanding what most of them and the noblest and best qualified, doe follow the inclinations of the auncyent Irish yet doe other follow that of the English.
These three sortes of Irish have their abovesaid inclynations soe deepely rooted in them, that in what state soever they live, they keepe them still; which is true not only in seculars, as Knightes, souldiers, and others, but allso in others as schollers, priestes, yea and religous men; yet as man hath free will by which he may forsake his owne inclynation, and follow the contrary, soe wee have seene sometymes, that an English-Irished hath followed or imitated the auncyent Irish, and auncient Irish the English, as it fell out with Capt. Whyte whoe being an Englished-Irish fought against the Englishe for the King of Spayne, and the Earle of Thomonde being an auncient Irish did helpe the English.
The difference of naturall inclinations and love did plainely appeare in the last warres which the Irish, holpen by this Catholicke Majesty made against the Englishe, for the auncyent Irish, and allso the most and noblest of the mixt Irish held for the King of Spayne, and allmost all the Englyshed-Irish held with the King of England, yet after that peace was confirmed betwixt Spayne and Englande great persecution was used against all three sortes of Irish without exception, whereby the Englished-Irish now perceive how farre they were overseene in helping the English and resisting the auncyent Irish and mixt, and now at this present they repent it very much, and are very desirous to get occasion to
p.364make satisfaction and to serve the Catholicke King of Spayne: But if they were shutt of their persecution and troubles, their naturall inclynations carryeth them more towards the English king and nation.
And to the end that the Lords of the Councell and Officers of his majestie may know of what Irish they make use of in the King's occasions, wee will lay down a table of the names and estates of such as have been bred here and speake the Spanysh tongue and serve his Majestie in severall places of his dominions.
Owen M'Mahon archbishop of Dublin which is the Court of Ireland, who was bred in Salamanca by his Majestie's appointment and now in Ireland.
Don Florence Conrio, arch. of Twomond in Ireland, entertayned by his Majestie in the states of Flaunders.
F. Fraunces Collman who hath beene provinciall of the order of St. Frauncis in Ireland.
F. Donnough O'Moonie provinciall that now is of the same order in Ireland.
The presented fryer Ross, Vicar-Generall of St. Dominick's order.
Vincent Ogane of this order.
Don de la Crux of this order in Lisborne.
Bernardus O Brien of the same order.
Hugh Cawill of St. Fraunces in Lovayne.
John Baptista of the Societie Rector in Lisborne.
Cornelius de la Roch of the same Societie.
William Macrath of the Societie Reader in the Seminary of Lisborne.
Cornelius de Schole Benedictine now going for Ireland.
Don John O'Neile, Earle of Tironne, Corronell of the Irish in Flaunders.
Don Hugh O'Donnell, Earl of Tyrconnell, Page to the Infanta in Flaunders.
Don Dermitius O'Sulivan, Earle of Bearhaven, in Madride.
Don Eugenius O Neile, Serjant Major.
Don Artus O Neile, Capten.
Don Thadie O Sulivan, Capten.
Cormock O Neile.
Morish O'Mahone, cum multis aliis, quos nunc prescribere longum.
Father Francis Nugent, of St. Dominick's order in Salamanca.
F. Robert Nugent, of the Societie, in Ireland.
F. Nicholas Nugent, his brother, of the Societie, Prisoner in Dublin for the Catholicke faith.
Don Redmond Bourke, Baron of Leytrime.
Don Balthazar Bourke Page of the Chamber, William BourkeMurish FitzgeraldEdward FitzgeraldThomas FitzgeraldGerald M'Murish, &c.
Peter Lombard, archbishop of Armagh and Primate in Rome.
Thomas Walsh of the habite of St. John in Ireland.
Paul Ragett, Vicar General of the order of St. Bernard in Ireland.
William of the Holy Ghost, Dominican in Madride.
Luke Waden, Vice Secretary to the Governor of St. Francis in Rome.
Thomas White of the Societie, Rector of the Irish Seminarie in Salamanca.
Richard Convoy of the same order, Rector of the Irish in St. James.
Christopher Hollywood, Superior of the Societie of Jesus in Ireland, who is a pure Englished, and allmost all those of this order, yea the very auncyent Irish that enter into the same order become allmost all Englished, conforming themselves to their superior, not only in their rules of Religion, but alsoe in their rules of policie, and government, and manner of life, procuring to conforme themselves to the tymes, and to winne the wills of the mighty.
Nicholas WiseCapten Thomas PrestonJames GernonWalter de la Hoyde who served the auncyent Irish in the last warresGeorge de la HoydeWilliam WalshCapten BatheThomas StanyhurstJohn Bathe, &c.
Noe where can we find place amongst the above names for Don David Carney, archbishopp of Cashellnor for Fa. Archer of the Societie: for the archbishopp being intertayned by His Majestie with allowance of a 1000 Crowns Yearly, and descending by righte lyne from the auncient Irish, notwithstanding having somewhat of the English bloud, and not being a divine, but a canonist, and guided by the fathers of the Societie, his kinsman, is of an Englished condicion. On the contrary side Father Archer though alltogether Englished; yet is he of the inclynation and condicion of the auncyent Irish, and much affected to the Spaniards and their King, and their manner of living, more then to the auncyent Irish whom he followed and aided in the last warres.
These are those that are known here (i. e. in Spayne,) of the three sortes. Notwithstanding there be in Ireland many more, both lord knights captayns and souldiers, and other several persons of different qualitie and state.
Now if you aske me of what sorte there are most in number, greatest in power and dignity, I aunswere that the auncient are most in numbers for they have many lords of title and knights amongst them, and withall the vassalls of the mixt and Englished lords and knights for the moste part are auncient Irish. Next unto these the mixt are most in number.
For power and strength of money the Englished passe, because for the most part either they or their auncestors have bene or are officers and dealers in the Court. Neither doe they use such liberality and hospitality as the auncient Irish and mixt doe use, frankly and gratis to all
p.366straungers and passengers, therefore it is thought that they have store of coyne gathered together, but the auncients and mixt have more lands and goods, notwithstandinge that they have lost farre more then the Englished in the persecution, yet they are more powerfull to make souldiers and armies, and truly many of the three sortes doe excellent service to his Majestie, in the exercise of their weapons and the skill of military discipline both in Flaunders and in Ireland.
The auncient and mixt Irish are not only great soldiers but allso warriors; and the Englished are more inclyned to other imployments than to warre: As for their quality or nobility, the question is easily resolved, considering the originall of every sorte by itselfe; for all the titularyes and knightes of the auncient Irish doe descende from the Kings of Spayne and Ireland, and are of auncient bloud royall of that kingdome, derived from Iberus, Eremon, Evergin and Lucio, foure sons of King Milesius of Spayne which conquered that kingdome some 2900 years agoe, taking it from the Graecians, who had killed a Spanish prince whoe by chance landed in Ireland.
The mixt Irish, although they enjoy not this descent so well authorized by the right lyne of their forefathers, yet they have it by their mothers, who were married to the ancient Irish.
The Englished, although they have not this nobility, yet have they another given by them by the Kings of England, by Parliaments in Ireland, so auncient that it is above 500 yeares that some knightes and Lordes of title began.
And this is in briefe all the relation that may be made of Ireland for the above mentioned intent of the King of Spayne.