Group 0 Elements

The elements in this group have a full outer electronic shell and thus, the elements in this group have no tendency to lose, gain or share electrons. Thus, the elements in the group are chemically inert.

All the elements in this group are gaseous. Because of their chemical inertness, the elements in this group are called the Nobel Gases :

Helium
Neon
Argon
Krypton
Xenon
Radon


Group I Elements

The elements in this group have one electron in their outer electronic shell. Thus, each element in this group has a tendency to lose a single electron, to form a singly charged positive ion, which has the stable electronic configuration of its neighbouring Nobel Gas element in the periodic table.

The elements in the group are chemically reactive.

The group is divided into two sub-groups.

Sub-Group Ia : The Alkali Metals

Lithium
Sodium
Potassium
Rubidium
Caesium
Francium

Sub-Group Ib : Transition Metal Elements

Copper
Silver
Gold

Hydrogen is included in this group because it has a single electron in its outer electronic shell. However, hydrogen has none of the metallic properties of the alkali metals.


Group II Elements

The elements in this group have two electrons in their outer electronic shell. Thus, each element in this group has a tendency to lose two electron, to form a doubly charged positive ion, which has the stable electronic configuration of its neighbouring Nobel Gas element in the periodic table.

The elements in the group are chemically reactive.

Sub-Group IIa : The Alkaline Earth Metals

Beryllium
Magnesium
Calcium
Strontium
Barium
Radium

Sub-Group IIb : Transition Metal Elements

Zinc
Cadmium
Mercury


Group III Elements

The elements in this group have three electrons in their outer-most electronic shell. The electronic configurations of the n th orbitals (i.e. outer-most orbitals) are ns2 np1. Thus, each element in this group has a tendency to lose three electron, to form a triply charged positive ion, which has the stable electronic configuration of its nearest neighbouring Nobel Gas element in the periodic table.

The elements in the group are chemically reactive.

Sub-Group IIIa : Transition Metal Elements

Scandium
Yttrium
Lanthanum

The following elements also have the same electronic configuration as lanthanum (i.e. 4s2 4p1) in their outer-most electronic orbitals, while the inner 3d orbitals are being filled, from going from element to element.

Cerium
Praeseodymium
Neodymium
Promethium
Samarium
Europium
Gadolinium
Terbium
Dysprosium
Holmium
Erbium
Thulium
Ytterbium
Lutecium

These are the transition elements, and are also called the Lanthanides.

Actinium
The following elements also have the same electronic configuration as actinium (i.e. 5s2 5p1) in their outer-most electronic orbitals, while the inner 4d orbitals are being filled, on going from element to element.

Neptunium
Plutonium
Americium
Curium
Berkelium
These are the inner transition elements, and are also called the Actinides.

Sub-Group IIIb : Main Group Elements

Boron
Aluminium
Gallium
Indium
Thallium


Group IV Elements

The elements in this group have four electrons in their outer electronic shell. Thus, each element in this group has a tendency to share these four electrons, to form covalent compounds, thereby gaining the stable electronic configuration of its neighbouring Nobel Gas element in the periodic table.

The elements in the group are chemically reactive.

Sub-Group IVa : Transition Metal Elements

Titanium
Zirconium
Hafnium
Thorium

Sub-Group IVb : Main Group Elements

Carbon
Silicon
Germanium
Tin
Lead


Group V Elements

The elements in this group have five electrons in their outer electronic shell. Thus, each element in this group has a tendency to gain three two electron, to form a triple charged negative ion, which has the stable electronic configuration of its nearest neighbouring Nobel Gas element in the periodic table.

The elements in the group are chemically reactive.

Sub-Group Va : Transition Metal Elements

Vanadium
Niobium
Tantalum
Protactinium

Sub-Group Vb : Main Group Elements

Nitrogen
Phosphorus
Arsenic
Antimony
Bismuth


Group VI Elements

The elements in this group have six electrons in their outer electronic shell. Thus, each element in this group has a tendency to gain two electron, to form a doubly charged negative ion, which has the stable electronic configuration of its nearest neighbouring Nobel Gas element in the periodic table.

The elements in the group are chemically reactive.

Sub-Group VIa : Transition Metal Elements

Chromium
Molybdenum
Tungsten
Uranium

Sub-Group VIb : Main Group Elements

Oxygen
Sulphur
Selenium
Tellurium
Polonium


Group VII Elements

The elements in this group have seven electrons in their outer electronic shell. Thus, each element in this group has a tendency to lose an electron, to form a singly charged negative ion, which has the stable electronic configuration of its nearest neighbouring Nobel Gas element in the periodic table.

The elements in the group are chemically reactive.

Sub-Group VIIa : Transition Metal Elements

Manganese
Technetium
Rhenium

Sub-Group VIIb : Main Group Elements

Fluorine
Chlorine
Bromine
Iodine
Astatine


Group VIII Elements

This group contains three triads of elements, in the center of the periodic table.

Iron
Cobalt
Nickel

Ruthenium
Rhodium
Palladium

Osmium
Iridium
Platinum

These elements have the typical properties of metals, metallic luster, tensile strength, and rightly.


Group Number

The group number is the number assigned to the vertical columns of the structured list of all known elements in the periodic table. Elements within the same group have the same number of electrons in their outer electron shells. Thus, all elements in the same group have similar chemical properties.


Groups in the Periodic Table

The elements are arranged in the sequence of their increasing atomic numbers into the periodic table, which is arranged in rows and columns, so that elements with similar chemical properties are in the same vertical column.

The elements which are in the same columns are said to be in the same group, and they have similar chemical properties.


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