Vanadium, V, is a transition metal element found in
Group Va of the
Vanadium has several valences in its compounds.
- Atomic Number : 23
- Relative Atomic Mass : 50.94
Vanadium was first isolated by J J Berzelius
Vanadium is widely distributed in rocks.
Its principal ores include occurs in
- Carnotite, U2O3.V2O5.K2O.3H2O,
- Patronite, V2S5, and
- Vanadinite, Pb5(VO4)Cl3.
Vanadium occurs in many coals which are mined in Peru.
Vanadium is extracted by fusing the ore with sodium carbonate and
sodium nitrate when sodium vanadate is formed. The latter is
extracted with water and then treated with ammonium chloride
which results in a orange coloured precipitate of ammonium
metavanadate which then yields vanadium pentoxide on heating.
Vanadium may be prepared in a small scale in the laboratory by
using the 'thermite reaction'. Thus, a mixture of vanadium pentoxide
and aluminium powder is ignited which results in the formation of
aluminium oxide and vanadium.
Vanadium is used
- in the preparation of Vanadium-Steel alloys, where the
resulting decrease inn the grain size results in increased
- in the preparation of catalysts in the chemicals industry or
the preparation of sulphuric acid and for the oxidation of naphthalene,
- in medicine
- in the form of its salts as accelerators in the drying of paints, and
- in the manufacture of glass.
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