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Atomic sub-orbitals are the sections of orbitals containing
paired electrons of opposite spin. Each atomic sub-orbital
can hold one pair of electrons.
A substitution reaction is one in which an atom or
radical (i.e. group of atoms), in a molecule is replaced
by another atom or radical.
A supersaturated solution is one in which too much solute
has been dissolved in a solvent. As a rule, hot solvents
can dissolve more solute than the same quantity of cold
solvent, so that when a hot saturated solution is cooled, a
supersaturated solution tends to form at lower temperatures.
Surface adsorption is the phenomenon whereby a substance
is attracted to the surface of a material and becomes
attached to that surface. The phenomenon explains the mechanism
of action of catalysts and the mechanism of
separation in chromatography.
The surface area of solids is area of the interface between the
solid and the gas to which it is exposed. Surface area is
an important factor in catalysis, as it is
this surface area which is available to absorb gases, vapours or
liquids. The chemical reactions then take place on the
surface of the catalysts.
Suspended solids are the particles of insoluble matter which
are present in natural waters and sewage effluents. The latter
have high levels of suspended solids, which must be subjected
to treatment before discharge to the aquatic environment.
Symmetry is the property of a molecule, whereby the molecule
has the same observed physical structure and appearance
when viewed from different orientations in space.
A synthesis is the name given to a chemical reaction in which
a chemical compound is made.
The synthesis of ammonia is an important industrial process for
the fixing of atmospheric nitrogen, thereby making it available
for incorporation into a range of other compounds.
A synthesis reaction is a reaction in which an inorganic
compound is formed directly by the combination of its elements.
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