A French chemist, Henri Louis Le Chatelier (1850-1936) is known for
his work on the response of a closed system in equilibrium to applied
forces. This is described in Le Chatelier
An American chemist at the University of California, Gilbert Newton
Lewis (1875-1931) proposed a structure for the nature of the
Covalent Chemical Bond,
which involved the sharing of electrons between the atoms in a
He also proposed a Lewis Theory of
as proton donors (i.e. Lewis Acids).
He isolated Heavy Water, D2O, in 1933AD.
An American physicist, Edwin Mattison McMillan (1907- ) discovered
a number of inner transition
in the Actinide Series.
He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1951AD, which he
shared with G T Seaborg for the discovery of these elements.
He was also involved in the development of the Synchotron.
A Russian chemist, Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (1834-1907) was born in Siberia.
He studied under Bunsen in Heidelberg.
He proposed the Periodic Law in 1869AD,
and the discovery of a number of elements (i.e. Scandium,
Gallium and Germanium
) which had the properties predicted by their position in his periodic table established his
An American physicist, Robert Andrews Millikan (1868-1953) was
awarded the Nobel Prize for physics in 1923AD for his determination
of the charge on a single electron (his famous oil drop experiment)
and for his work on the Photo-Electric Effect.
A French chemist, Ferdinand Frededic Henri Moissan (1852-1907)
discovered Fluorine in 1886AD.
He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1906AD for his discovery of
and for developing the electric furnace.
A British natural philosopher and mathematician, Sir Isaac Newton
(1642-1726) is credited with the discovery of Calculus and Gravitation.
He became Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University in 1669AD.
He was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1672AD for his work on
His two greatest works are Philosophiae Naturalis Principia
Mathematica, 1687AD, which established the mathematical representation
of nature and is the basis of science, and Opticks, 1704AD.
Newton laid the foundation for differential and integral
calculus. His work on optics and gravitation make him one of the greatest
scientists the world has known.
out more at:
An Austrian-American physicist, Wolfgang Pauli (1900-1958 ), was
born in Vienna. He studied under Max Born in Gottingen and under
NielsBohr in Copenhagen.
He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1945 for his
Pauli's Exclusion Principle.
A German physicist, Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck (1858-1947) combined
the concepts of Quantum Theory with those of the Theory of
He proposed that, just like matter, energy is
not infinitely divisible and that it exists only in discrete
bundles called Quanta.
Planck initiated the study of quantum mechanics when he
announced in 1900 his theoretical research into radiation and absorbsion
of a black body.
out more at:
A French chemist, Joseph Louis Prout (1754-1826) discovered the Law
of Definite Composition, which states a pure compound has a fixed and
A New Zealand physicist, Sir Ernest Rutherford, First Baron Rutherford of Nelson
showed that the 'rays' emitted by Uranium were
of two types, alpha-Particles and beta-Particles. He later showed that an alpha-Particle was a
Helium atom that was stripped of its two electrons.
In 1908AD, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
In 1911AD, he proposed the nuclear structure for the
In 1919AD, he showed the artificial disintegration of an atom,
where a nitrogen atom was converted into an oxygen atom and
a hydrogen atom on collision with an alpha-Particles.
An Austrian born Irish physicist, Erwin Schrodinger (1887-1961), was
awarded the 1933 Nobel prize in physics with Dirac for his
Schrodinger Wave Equation, which is the basis of
Schrödinger made important contributions to the
development of Quantum Mechanics and received a Nobel prize in 1933
out more at:
An American physicist, Glenn Theodore Seaborg (1912- ) discovered a number of
inner transition elements
in the Actinide Series.
He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1951AD, which
he shared with E W McMillan for the discovery of these elements.
An Italian nuclear physicist, Emilio Gino Segre (1930- ) discovered
the element Astatine.
He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1959AD, which he shared
with O Chamberlain for the discovery of the Anti-Proton.
A British physicist, Sir Joseph Thompson (1856-1940) discovered the Electron.
He showed that Cathode Rays were
negatively charged streams of particles which could be deflected by magnetic and
electric fields. He showed that the mass of these particles was
much less than that of the hydrogen atom, thereby demonstrating
the existence of Sub-Atomic Particles
for the first time.
He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1906AD.
A Dutch physicist and chemist, Joannes Diderik Van der Waals was born
in Leiden, Holland.
He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1910 for his work on the Equations
of State of gases.
A German chemist, Friedrick Wohler (1800-1882) was the first person
to transform an inorganic substance (i.e. ammonium cyanate, NH4NCO)
into an organic substance (i.e. urea, H2N.C=O.NH2) in 1828AD.
With Liebig, he co-discovered the Benzoyl Radical, C6H5CO*.
Donal O'Leary B.A., H.Dip.Ed., Dip.Chem.Tech., L.I.C.I.
is a technician in the Chemistry Department,
University College, Cork, Ireland, for the last 25
years. He is involved in instrumental analysis,
particularly in the examination of organic
compounds using nuclear magnetic resonance
spectroscopy. He is also responsible for the
preparation of practical laboratory sessions for
He is interested in exploring the use of inexpensive computer
based hypertext documents as teaching tools has a keen interest
in promoting the teaching of chemistry through the use of computer
technology. This hypertext on the World Wide Web is a revised
version of an earlier hypertext which he released for Microsoft
If you have any comments, or wish to have a specific topic included,
you may send an e-mail message
to the author now, or contact him by snail-mail at :
Donal O'Leary, Chemistry Department, University College, Cork,
Ireland. If the slow speed on the internet has limited your access to
the contents of this hypertext, the author will supply a disk containing
the full text for $10 or £5 to cover the cost of duplication and mailing.
Start of Hypertext ....
Hypertext Copyright (c) 2000 Donal O'Leary. All Rights Reserved.