An English teacher and scientist, John Dalton (1766-1844) is the
originator of the modern chemical
of the Structure of Matter.
He produced the first list of relative atomic masses in Absorption of Gasses 1805.
He discovered the
Law of Partial
Pressures of Gases (Dalton's Law) in 1801AD, which states that
the pressure exerted by a mixture of gases equals the sum of the
partial pressures of the components of the mixture.
His Law of Multiple Proportions states that if two elements, A and B,
form more than one compound, the various weights of B which combine
with A are in small whole number ratios.
A British chemist, John Daniell (1790-1845) discovered the
Daniell Cell in 1836AD.
An English chemist, Sir Humphrey Davy (1778-1829) pioneered the
study of Electrochemistry
and isolated the elements
He recognised that Chlorine was an
element in 1810AD.
His most practical invention was the Davy Lamp, a safety lamp
used by miners in the pits.
Einstein contributed more than any other scientist to the modern vision
of physical reality. His special and general theories of relativity are still
regarded as the most satisfactory model of the large-scale universe that we
A German born Swiss-American, Albert Einstein (1879-1955) is the
author of the Theory of Relativity.
He worked in the Berne patent office in Switzerland, where in his
spare time he developed a number of theories, which he published
in 1905AD. These included a mathematical explanation of
He was professor of mathematics at the Institute of Advanced
Studies at Princeton, New Jersey from 1933AD.
He was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics in 1921AD for applying
Planck's Quantum Theory to the explanation of the photoelectric
emission of electrons.
A German pathologist Gerhard Domagk (1895-1964), the antibacterial
sulphonamide drugs. He found in 1932 that coal-tar dye called
Prontosil red contains chemicals with powerful antibacterial properties.
Sulphanamide drugs, used before antibiotics were discovered
to treat a wide range of conditions, including pneumonia and septic
wounds. Domagk was awarded the 1939 Nobel Prize for
Physiology and medicine (because of the war had
to wait until 1947 to claim his prize).
An English chemist and physicist, Michael Faraday (1791-1867), in 1821 began experimenting
with electromagnetism, and ten years later discovered the
induction of electric currents and made the first dynamo. He subsequently
found that magnetic field will rotate the plane of polarization of light.
Farrady also investigated Electrolysis.
A German chemist, Emil Hermann Fischer (1852-1919), produced synthetic
sugars. His description of the chemistry of the carbohydrates and
peptides laid the foundations for the science of biochemistry.
He received the Nobel prize 1902.
A French chemist and physicist, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (1778-1850),
is known for the
Gay-Lussac's Law Law, which he stated
in 1808AD, which states that when gases combine in chemical reactions to give
gaseous products, the ratio of the volumes of the reacting gases to that of
the product is a simple integral one.
Avagadro's Hypothesis is based on Gay-Lussac's Law and on Dalton's
Law of Multiple Proportions.
J Willard Gibbs (1839 to 1903) was an American mathematician best-known
for the Gibbs effect seen when Fourier-analysing a discontinuous
He developed a
mathematical approach to thermodynamics. His book
.Vector Analysis . 1881 established vector methods in physics.
A French chemist, Francois Auguste-Victor Grignard (1871-1935) discovered in 1900
a series of organic compounds now known as the
Grignard Reagents. These
reagents have found applications as some of the most versatile reagents in organic
chemistry. Members of this class contain a hydrocarbon radical, magnesium, and a halogen
such as chlorine.
He received the Nobel Prize for chemistry in 1912.
A British chemist, Thomas Graham (1805-1869) formulated
Graham's Law of
Gaseous Diffusion which states that the diffusion rate of a gas is
inversely proportional to the square root of its density.
He also discovered the colloidal state, while working on
A German chemist, Fritz Haber (1868-1934) was the inventor
of the Haber Process.
He was awarded the Nobel Prize in
Chemistry in 1918AD for this work which led to
the Synthesis of Ammonia from hydrogen, and nitrogen.
His study of the combustion of hydrocarbons led to the combustion
of hydrocarbond led to the commercial
Fractional distillation of
natural oil (petroleum) into its components.
Electrochemistry, he was the
first to demonstrate that oxidation and reduction take place at the
electrodes, from this he developed a general electrochemical theory.
A German mathematical physicist, Werner Karl Heisenberg (1901-1976)
is the Father of Quantum Mechanics.
He is remembered for his Uncertainty Principle, that rejects the notion that the properties
of an atom can be described exactly by the solutions to mathematical
A Swiss chemist and doctor, Germain Henri Hess (1892-1850), was born
in Geneva and was brought to Russia in 1805AD.
He is remembered for his work in
Thermochemistry and his Law of
Heat of Summation.
A German chemist, Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1743-1817) is known
for his work on chemical analysis. In 1789AD, he discovered
and Titanium in 1795AD.
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