A Swedish physical chemist, Svante August Arrhenius (1859-1927)
was born near Uppsala, he became a professor at Stockholm in 1895, and
his special study was
Electrolysis. He developed
the theory concerning the properties of ionic species in solution.
Arrhenius Concept of Bases,
Arrhenius Concept of
Arrhenius Concept of Acids
He wrote "Worlds in the Making and Destinies of the Stars"
He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1903AD.
In 1905 he predicted global warming as a result of carbon dioxide
emission from burning fuels.
A British physicists, Francis William Aston (1877-1945) invented
the Mass Spectrometer
and used it to identify and separate the
Isotopes, of elements, for
which he was awarded the Nobel prize
for Chemistry in 1922.
An Italian physicist, Count Amedeo Avogadro, published his hypothesis in
1811AD, which states that equal volumes of gases under the same
conditions of temperature and pressure contain the same number
His work was revived by Cannizzaro
6.02 X 10^23 is the number of molecules
in one mole of a substance.
A French physicist, Henri Becquerel (1852-1908) discovered the
Natural Radioactivity of
Uranium in 1896AD.
He shared the Nobel Prize in Physics with Pierre Curie and
Marie Curie in 1903AD.
A Swedish chemist Jons Jakob Berzelius (1779-1848) who
accurately determined more than 2000 relative atomic and
molecular masses. He devised (1813-14) the system of
chemical symbols and formulae now in use and proposed oxygen
as a reference standard for atomic masses. His discoveries include
selenium (1817), and
thorium (1828). He was the
first to prepare silicon in its
amorphous form and to isolate zirconium.
Allotropy, and Protein were coined by him.
A Danish physicist, Neils Henrik David Bohr 1885-1962) proposed the
Bohr Model of the structure
of the Atom, based on a central nucleus, around which electrons traveled in orbits.
He was also involved in establishing the validity of the quantum theory.
He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1912AD for his
contribution to the understanding of the atom.
Niels Bohr is best known for the investigations of atomic
structure and also for work on radiation, which won him the 1922 Nobel
Prize for physics.
out more at:
An Austrian physicist, Ludwig Boltzmann (1844-1906) is known for his
work in thermodynamics and the
Kinetic theory of gases.
The Boltzmann Constant, which
is named after him, is used
in statistical mechanics.
A German industrial chemist, Karl Bosch (1874-1940) is known for his
work in developing the
for the synthesis of ammonia to the industrial scale. This industrial process
is now called the
He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on
high pressure synthesis in 1931AD.
An Irish natural philosopher, Robert Boyle (1627-1691) is called the
Father of Modern Chemistry for his promotion of the concepts of the
atomic nature of matter and his rejection of the theories of the
He is remembered for his experimental work on the physical properties
of gases, and for Boyle's Law which
relates the pressure and volume of a fixed quantity of gas.
He was a founder member of the Royal Society of London.
A Danish physical chemist, Joannes Nicolaus Bronsted (1879-1947) is
known for his work in developing the Bronsted Lowry Theory of
He was professor of Chemistry at the University of Copenhagen and
the Polytechnic Institute.
A Scottish botanist, Robert Brown (1773-1858) discovered
Brownian Movement in 1827AD.
A detailed mathematical interpretation of molecular
motion as the cause of this Brownian Motion was published by
Albert Einstein in 1905AD.
A German chemist, Robert Wilhelm Bunsen (1811-1899), is remembered for
his work on spectroscopy. The burner which he used is known as a
He discovered the two elements,
An Italian chemist, Stanislao Cannizaro(1826-1910), is remembered for
his work in reviving interest in the work of
Avogadro that had in 1811, revealed the difference
between atoms and molecules, and so established atomic and molecular weights
as the basis of chemical calculations.
The following is known as the Cannizzaro's principal.
The atomic weight of an element is the smallest weight
of the element contained in a molecular weight of any of its compounds.
An English chemist, Henry Cavendish (1731-1810) discovered
1776AD, showed that water was a compound and not an element.
He also showed that the composition of the atmosphere was constant
and determined the composition of Nitric acid.
He used a torsion balance to measure the density of the Earth.
A Swedish astronomer, Andes Celsius (1701-44) is known for his work
in developing the Celsius Scale of Temperature which bears his name.
An English physicist, Sir James Chadwick (1891-1974) in 1932, discovered the
particle in the nucleus of an atom that became known as the neutron
because it has no electric charge.
He was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics in 1935AD for his discovery of the
A French physicist, Jacques Alexandre Cesar Charles (1746-1823) is
best remembered for his Charle's Law, which
states that for an ideal
gas at constant pressure, its volume is proportional to its
An English physicist, Sir William Crookes (1832-1919) invented the
He also devised the Crookes Tube in 1876AD, to study
CathodeRays. The tube had
two electrodes and a gas at low pressure,
and by applying high voltages across the electrodes and by varying
the gas pressure, he was able to study the cathode rays.
A Polish born French Chemist, with her French born husband Pierre
Curie (1859-1906), Marie Curie (1867-1934) worked on
and in 1898 she reported the possible existence of a new, powerfully
radioactive element in pitchblend ores. Her husband abandoned his own researches
to assist her and discovered the radioactive elements
radium in the pure state in 1902.
They both refused to take out a patient on their discoveries and were
jointly awarded the Davy Medal in 1903.
The Curies shared the Nobel prize in physics in 1903AD with
Marie Curie wrote a Treatise on Radioactivity in 1910AD, and
was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry 1911AD.
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